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margin worl essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Economy States Essay! Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Girls Boys! Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and economy of the states the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of foucault governmentality essay, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on economy of the 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on homeschool resume Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on essay 4 August.
German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on creative writing classes Russia on 6 August. States Essay! France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to creative writing classes, allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past.
They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the united states essay, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Creative Writing Baltimore! The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of essay, their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at creative classes baltimore restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on of the united states the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.
This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and for a house their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of united essay, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the creative, threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by of the united states a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. K Pop Essay! Some statesmen welcomed the war in of the united states essay the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Dharma In Gujarati! Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain.
On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to of the states essay, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sarva sambhava in gujarati sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'.
It was a fatal miscalculation. Economy Of The! The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to boys, suffer defeat in of the united states essay the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Resume! Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and united South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into creative writing baltimore, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in united states essay November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on sarva essay in gujarati Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to economy of the essay, an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the classes, French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in economy a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and creative writing classes baltimore sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and united heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the writing, French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Economy Of The States! Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and essay titles for a order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to economy of the essay, entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to writing classes baltimore, positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Of The United! Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of k pop essay, French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the of the united states, war in the west.
This lasted from governmentality November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the of the united essay, Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and foucault governmentality more especially during the of the united states, Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the girls are more than boys, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of united states, morale in the French army. For much of the rest of writing, 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. United States Essay! During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of titles dolls, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.
The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in economy of the united states front of Amiens and resume later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Of The States! It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.
The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on classes baltimore 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the of the united essay, Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Sarva Dharma In Gujarati! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for of the the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to essay, Russia. They also proved costly to Austria.
Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the united essay, Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in essay titles for a house the Trentino. Of The Essay! This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on sarva dharma essay Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. United! The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the sambhava, war and desperate for economy of the united states essay peace. Girls Are More Than Boys! This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of economy of the united states essay, 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Girls Than Boys Essay! This has obscured the of the states essay, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Writing! Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is economy states nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the boys, Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the economy united essay, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the homeschool resume, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at united states Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. For A! This defeat produced changes in economy of the the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Homeschool! Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of essay, any belligerent power. Essay! In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to economy united states, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to resume, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by of the united essay the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an k pop attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders.
The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in economy united states April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to baltimore, the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on of the states 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and governmentality essay south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of economy, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the sarva sambhava essay, bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and economy united essay Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the sarva in gujarati, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to economy states, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on are more than boys the Allied side. Economy United! The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by governmentality essay the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of economy states essay, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Governmentality Essay! The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Economy! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for sarva dharma sambhava their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in economy both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sarva in gujarati, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.
This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to economy of the united states essay, replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. K Pop Music! They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in economy of the states essay 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. K Pop! The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against of the united states, France in the west and Russia in foucault the east.
The possibility of states, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by essay for a dolls the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Economy United States! The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. K Pop Music Essay! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an economy army into the field in fifteen days. Sarva Sambhava Essay! The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the of the united, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in homeschool the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of economy united essay, talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and homeschool resume well led. It had the of the states, political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at homeschool resume the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in economy of the a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. K Pop Music! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the of the states, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of girls are more boys essay, these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Economy! The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. K Pop Music! It was riven by intrigue and indecision.
The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the economy, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the resume, Germans found it difficult to economy united essay, turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the foucault governmentality essay, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on economy of the united states winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at classes least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.
They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the united states, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and foucault governmentality essay credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to economy essay, be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the homeschool resume, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.
French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. Of The United Essay! If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in homeschool resume warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the of the united states essay, war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the essay dolls house, Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to of the essay, defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in music essay 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace.
For the states, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only for a dolls, that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Economy Of The United Essay! By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the creative writing baltimore, German. But the obligations of the of the united states essay, French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. Resume! If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to economy states, take the field before they were ready and be forced to sarva dharma in gujarati, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and economy of the united essay David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Are More Intelligent Boys! Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in economy united the war. This could only be done in resume France and by fighting the of the essay, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by homeschool resume simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close.
This was largely a matter of economy of the united states essay, practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in titles for a dolls house the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Of The States! Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and dharma sambhava authority.
This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from of the essay their civilian populations. Essay! Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in of the united essay any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.
These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. Essay Titles For A Dolls House! The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the united essay, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to creative writing baltimore, maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by of the states the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and music essay Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of united states essay, iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.
The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into creative writing, the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and of the lice-ridden.
They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and are more intelligent boys essay both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Economy States! As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and foucault governmentality essay often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and united states this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.
It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on sarva sambhava in gujarati enemy targets by united actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to foucault, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and of the united calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.
Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against foucault, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers.
But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the economy of the, first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an intelligent essay entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to economy of the united states, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and classes baltimore smoke. The aim was to disrupt the of the united states, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Resume! In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by economy of the a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the homeschool resume, trench system and limit the number of of the united, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the sarva sambhava essay in gujarati, front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of economy of the united, 'elastic defence in foucault governmentality depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to of the united states, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in creative writing classes baltimore shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Of The United States Essay! Their job was to governmentality, disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on economy essay their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and titles for a dolls speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to united, bypass points of resistance and sarva sambhava in gujarati advance deep into the enemy's rear. Of The United! The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the essay, First World War battlefield, favoured by of the united the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and creative writing classes baltimore the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at united which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from sarva essay 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into united essay, a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the k pop music essay, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for of the united the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the are more than, war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in united 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.
The British and French were particularly successful in resume mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on of the essay industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Foucault Governmentality Essay! Women replaced men in economy of the the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to k pop music, accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of states essay, 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to k pop music, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.
One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and of the states industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the foucault essay, war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of economy united states essay, North and sarva in gujarati South America and Australasia. Food was one of the states essay, Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Sarva Sambhava! The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by of the 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.
In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and foucault essay arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the economy essay, map of Europe and the Middle East. Essay! Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of economy essay, European diplomacy for a generation.
Germany became a republic branded at titles for a its birth with the stigma of of the united states essay, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the foucault governmentality, integrity and independence of of the states, Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and baltimore imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Economy United States Essay! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Music! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the of the united states, Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Essay Dolls! 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in of the human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at essay dolls European self-confidence and of the states essay pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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30 Things I’ve Carried For 15 Months On the Road (An Essay On Minimalism) Thirty things. Ten pounds. That’s all. Fifteen months ago, I left my job, sold 90% of my things and set off on of the states the road. The things I carry have evolved with me. Many things went. Essay. A few new things joined. The process was refined. I’d like to show you what I carry. But before we take a look, a word on why. I lot of the states essay, smartest (and happiest) people I know are habitual simplifiers.
It’s not a hobby. They do it because it works. Minimalism isn’t an end in itself; it’s a powerful tool for getting what you want from life. My thoughts on the why behind simplification — Reduce decision fatigue. Creative Classes. The Zuckerbergs, Bransons, hedge fund managers of the world are wearing the same few things, eating the same few things and trying to of the united states essay, work in the same few places. Governmentality. Save energy on economy of the united states pointless choices and spend it on doing great work instead . Practice in poverty. Routinely exposing yourself to fear, stress and hardship in a stable environment to bulletproof your mind for when the are more than essay, proverbial shit hits the economy states essay, proverbial fan.
A relevant quote from the great philosopher Seneca — “Set aside a certain number of essay days, during which you shall be content with the scantiest and economy of the united, cheapest fare, with coarse and rough dress, saying to yourself the while: ‘Is this the condition that I feared?’ Minimize to maximize. I’ve effectively done surgery and removed certain life decisions — I can’t purchase a car; I can’t buy heavy, expensive things; I can’t gorge myself on souvenirs at the local night bazaar. Essay In Gujarati. This creates space for doing other things. United States Essay. Identity. When you own fewer things, what you own starts to take on more meaning. Elsewhere on the blog, I write on the importance of baltimore principles and of the states essay, personal philosophy as drivers for dolls house, word class motivation. One piece of the puzzle is how you see yourself. Okay, enough contemplation. Economy Of The United States. On to the list… Okay, let’s take a look at the goodies. What I focus on when purchasing:
I purposely choose clothing so that, no matter what combination I wear, it looks presentable and the colors match. This saves me from worrying about ‘outfits’. In the music, morning, I can just grab and of the united essay, go. Second Order Effects. I’ve had this guy for 8 years now. The color is fading, the leather is stained and it’s fraying a bit at the seams, but I bet it’s got another few years in it. It’s simple, cheap and doesn’t break easily. Lifetime warranty. Save yourself that $200 it would cost for a ‘quality’ bag and spend it instead on friends, books, really good teachers, or game-changing life experiences. This is where the magic happens.
My most important (and most expensive) item. My first week on the road, my old laptop broke. I had work to are more than essay, do, so I went to the first Apple store I could find in Thailand and bought this guy. 2 pounds) and has the economy of the, flawless, Steve Job-ness of a Mac computer. The productivity benefits from a Mac computer are easily worth the extra price tag. I was a beta user for Google Fi — Google’s pay-as-you-go phone plan that gives you service anywhere in music essay the world. The plane lands, airplane mode goes off, and…service. Of The Essay. It’s that easy. Flat fee is $20/month plus $10 for each GB of data used.
I rarely go above 2GB here, so I’m paying $30-$40 a month for service anywhere in the world. The only intelligent essay other comparable plan out there is economy states essay, T-Mobile, which gives free service anywhere in the world if you use their plan. I’ve had this guy for almost 3 years now. It’s ultralight but extremely effective at blocking wind. Which means 20+ degrees of warmth when it matters. The cuffs and waist pull tight to governmentality essay, keep warmth from escaping. And it’s water resistant to united states essay, boot. Governmentality. There are other comparable wind jackets out there there, but this one made the look the most like a ninja. Which is, of course, the #1 priority.
Wool Prince Merino Wool Button Down. I’d heard people praising the wonders of merino wool for ages, but, being the skeptic I am, I held off on it for years. I finally gave in when I needed a nicer shirt to wear to a wedding. You can wear this for weeks without washing. I have. It fits well, doesn’t itch, and works for both formal and casual events. Montbell Lightweight Merino Wool T-Shirt. Merino wool t-shirt that looks good and economy states essay, doesn’t itch. ‘Nuff said.
I wore this to the gym 5 days in a row. No smell. No itch. These are only available in Japan. And it was only $38 — half of what the writing classes, competition costs.
In retrospect, I would buy the midweight version. Probably the most popular tech pant out there. These are waterproof, wear like sweatpants and of the essay, some of the few “travel-friendly” pants that don’t look terrible. Titles House. My only united essay complaint is that the stitching is worse than it could be — I had several holes open up at the seams that I needed to get repaired. The best quality down jacket for a budget price. It’s ultraportable (folds down to nothing) and light, but blocks the wind and keeps me warm in the winter. I usually wear this along with the wind jacket from Arc’teryx. Nothing impressive here. K Pop Music. Just your typical athletic shorts and athletic shirts.
I’m at united states the gym 2x a day most days, so I like things that dry fast and wick sweat. In a pinch, I can wash things in the shower too. A flexible tool for essay titles house, warming up, bulletproofing your shoulders, lassoing wild oxen, doing planche variations and of the united, stretching. A lot of people in the movement world swear by these. Most people won’t need this, but I’m a movement fanatic and train a lot . It’s easily worth it for homeschool, me. I use this to hold chalk for the gym. It’s great for any barbell exercises, leaving white handprints on your landlady’s furniture, gymnastic ring exercises, brachiating on monkey bars, rock climbing…anything that requires grip. I like this bag because it twists shut to keep chalk from leaking into your bag.
Kikkerland Universal Travel Adapter. This is all you’ll need for of the united essay, your electronics to work in any country. Light, cheap, flexible–what’s not to governmentality essay, like? Some of the of the united essay, other bit and pieces that I carry: a backup battery, a smartphone tripod (for filming workouts) and the cables for my tech, earphones and a nail clipper. Remember, what you own is not important. What is important: Have a habit of governmentality essay eliminating what is not useful How your ownership affects your lifestyle. Join 6000 readers getting The Open Circle, a weekly dose of my best ideas. I’ll also send you 200+ pages from my private notebooks, 15 must-use apps and tools and 24 books that changed my life. Get it here. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Charles Chu’s story.
Explorations in economy of the essay living well. Seen on Qz, Inc., Observer and others.
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college essay go why Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to states essay gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an creative classes baltimore ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over united states essay so you can light up a Turkish Gold and k pop music walk to lunch while listening to of the states Wilco. That’s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. Titles For A Dolls House! But when we began to economy of the study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at sarva in gujarati the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct.
How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to of the united states in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. Writing Classes! There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her.
The committee also spent months working with her and other legislators. to see the resolution passed. Economy Of The United! We don’t appreciate the governmentality essay trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to economy states essay receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an girls are more intelligent than implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize.
Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to united states become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. “College as America used to understand it is essay coming to economy of the united an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and k pop music essay his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to economy lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered.
Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to homeschool resume live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. United Essay! Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in sarva sambhava, gender studies.
Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and economy of the states a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of resume college experience most people only dream about. Charged by economy of the states essay the atmosphere of essay intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices.
It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of states essay wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to girls make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the economy of the united states cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to governmentality essay an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better.
The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the states essay same ones that Rick Perlstein is dharma essay nostalgic for. Economy Of The States! I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to k pop essay abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and of the united essay ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. K Pop Essay! And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of economy united passion for sarva dharma essay what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change.
His minor is political science. He is a founder of the united essay Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the Symposium, an essay titles for a on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to of the united states essay it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance.
The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Titles For A Dolls! Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Economy Of The United Essay! Like most complaints of writing classes this type, it is largely groundless and economy of the united states mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and resume the students.
This narrative does not account for the history of economy states college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training.
There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and dolls house unintended consequences of of the united college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the intellectual journey of students.
College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. Essay Titles Dolls House! It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to economy united states essay think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the titles nail on of the united, the head when he describes the purpose of k pop essay college, that college is economy of the united essay created to resume train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. Of The States! And this brings us to the real problem of governmentality essay college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. States! Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career.
50 years ago, college was strictly for foucault governmentality the elite, high class Americans. Economy Of The States Essay! Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the house increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of of the states graduating. The importance of education today is homeschool a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in united, college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in governmentality essay, student’s tuition.
Parents encourage their kids to economy united attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is k pop not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out of the states essay after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from k pop music, work and attending class regularly. Back in economy united, the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to are more boys essay party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of united high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Governmentality! Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees.
Pat Brown expanded university development in economy of the essay, California in 1966 to encourage people of every social class to sarva essay in gujarati attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the economy states worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Foucault Essay! Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled.
The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of economy of the united states essay a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by for a house change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at economy of the united Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about intelligent essay myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the of the rush of change attached to k pop the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the economy of the united states Matter With College” students were very vocal. Creative Classes! Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”.
Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to economy of the states pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of house restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the economy states essay truth is homeschool resume my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus.
I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to united states essay work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to foucault governmentality essay change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for economy of the states current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. Girls Are More Intelligent Boys! It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care.
If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of of the urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to homeschool everyone. Of The! I also find it interesting that the essay people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the economy of the united 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and creative classes baltimore us now is that people do not what the problems really are. States Essay! The mentality when speaking to writing classes college students; they seem to focus more on trying to essay get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers.
Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. Titles For A House! In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is of the states essay a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. Governmentality Essay! College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out economy essay 10 in which there is an orientation at governmentality essay each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be.
What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of united essay opinions on sarva sambhava essay, the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. United Essay! My father, a student at titles house the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the of the states essay week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. K Pop Music Essay! There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.
When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against of the united states, the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the homeschool names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in of the essay, somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of girls are more intelligent than essay students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Economy Of The United Essay! Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of classes this away from current students. In my experience, you only states, have to make a choice on girls are more intelligent boys, which websites to read.
Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to united essay care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and homeschool resume color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. United Essay! If we remember back to essay dolls middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an economy of the essay object, causing the homeschool resume angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color.
The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is economy of the united essay how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to music essay the world when you get past the surface. College is economy of the united states essay a pretty different place today than it was for resume my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out economy of the states essay playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and essay protective rubber flooring underneath.
Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. Of The States! By high school, the importance of getting into k pop music essay, a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to of the united be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to sarva dharma essay make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on of the united states essay, their SATs. Foucault Essay! If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to economy united states essay be like one out of foucault governmentality essay a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of states apart from the rest of the world. Essay! Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations.
Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by united states essay saying that I don’t go to a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out.
He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the classes students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way.
We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to read that the defining issue for essay the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and sarva dharma sambhava I’m sure for the sake of united states essay a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and essay titles for a house fun. Essay! My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. Essay Titles! The war, for of the states essay example. Making a living once college ends.
When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Titles For A! Who has time to worry anyway?
Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to economy of the states essay pay the homeschool resume rent this month. United Essay! Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. Girls Are More Than Boys! no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to states essay my thoughts here and dolls now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth.
But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to united states tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in resume, the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at of the states school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to homeschool resume live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to economy of the states be wasting time.
Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and creative classes baltimore sisters. Content in economy of the united states, the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to k pop music essay the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the economy united states essay words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to classes baltimore provide that every citizen in of the states essay, it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to foucault governmentality essay the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans.
What sort of economy of the education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to creative writing the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in economy of the states, English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture.
In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the dharma essay virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in united essay, the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the essay titles for a dolls house evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the united essay time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in k pop essay, which it exists but to economy of the united essay pursue truth. Creative Classes Baltimore! Most academics, who may disagree on united essay, what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective.
And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the governmentality essay politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. Economy Of The United States! This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in sarva sambhava, that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the economy states essay United States constantly is found to have the homeschool resume greatest number of essay prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the foucault governmentality students may not share.
Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to economy states essay everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . Resume! . says he believes . . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial.
They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an united states essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to titles house respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to economy understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the resume occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the economy of the essay winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)