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Brown V. The Board of Education Research Papers. A research paper on new york the case Brown v. the Board of Education shows Brown v. the research Board of Education was brought about essays as a major challenge to this principle of separate but equal. When writing on Brown, the research paper must show it was the culmination of other court cases which had been brought in the decades up to 1950. Most of these cases had been initiated and conducted by the NAACP and attorneys and organizations allied with them. Have Paper Masters help you write on writing sat essay this complex legal case that still has ramifications today. The NAACP was officially formed in 1909 with the goal of eliminating lynching of synecdoche blacks and obtaining fair trials for blacks. In the morrison huck finn 1930s, the new york organization began to focus on obtaining the integration of all areas of American life. One of the NAACP's first objectives was to gain admission for blacks at the graduate level of college education. These cases were conducted by Thurgood Marshall, who in paper, 1938 became the general counsel for the NAACP's Legal Defense and essays, Education Fund and later became a Supreme Court Justice. The NAACP had victories in toni finn essay, this area of graduate education with the following cases: Gaines v. University of Missouri in 1938 Sipuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma in 1948 Sweatt v. Painter in 1950.
Elements to synecdoche new york, Include in Your Brown v. Board of Education Research Paper. A research paper on Brown v. Board of writing prompts sat essay Education should show that what is now known simply as the Brown v. Board of Education landmark Supreme Court case was originally called Oliver Brown et al v. Board of Education of Topeka [Kansas]. This case challenged a Kansas statute permitting cities of over 15,000 population to maintain separate schools for whites and blacks for grades one through eight. At the time, Topeka has segregated schools for synecdoche new york essays, grades one through six. the case arose from the situation of the black girl Linda Brown having to travel a distance to attend the segregated black school when there was a white school five blocks from her home. The plaintiffs aimed to toni huck, have the Kansas statute declared unconstitutional.
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Since the 1954 decision, minorities have achieved major advances in obtaining equality in education as well as other areas. However, the issues related to equality are not yet resolved. Although schools today are viewed as integrated in nature, problems still exist as to how to keep a racial balance within the school system. While the synecdoche new york majority now views segregation as illegal, a search for the ultimate remedy is ongoing in nature. Schools for All - Integration and desegregation efforts in the South, as every student of history knows, were doomed from the toni huck finn essay start. Texas State Board of Education Lawsuit examines a paper ordered for a critical analysis on Dr. Daniel D. Chiras' lawsuit. Approaches to synecdoche essays, Deaf Communication - Equal Opportunity in Education research papers discuss education for disabled students since the days of Brown v. The Board of Education. Philosophy of Education research papers take a broad look at education topics such as inclusive education programs and the learning disabled in schools. Affirmative Action Research Papers - Affirmative Action has become one of the most heated areas of paper with debate in both social and political circles all across the country. African American History research papers look into the experience of African Americans since the founding of the British colonies to essays, the Civil Rights movement.
Tenth Amendment research papers look at the 10th Amendment of the United States Constitution.. Little Rock High School Research Papers examine the first school to integrate successfully in the South. Short Essay! How to Write a Research Paper on Brown V. The Board of Education. This page is designed to show you how to synecdoche new york, write a research project on the topic you see to the left. Use our sample or order a custom written research paper from essay about the environment, Paper Masters.
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Synecdoche new york movie analysis
MAUPASSANT (de), Guy, Le Papa de Simon. Edern, Juliette, Camille, Aurelien, Mathilde, Lilou, Oceane 30 Novembre 2016 M. Guy de Maupassant est l'auteur de cette nouvelle, il l'a écrite le 1 er décembre 1879. Synecdoche Essays. Cette époque n'est pas particulière, il a aussi écrit Aux champs Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy. Morrison Finn. Philippe ramasse le petit Simon en larmes au bord de l' étang, il le ramène chez sa mère. New York Essays. Cela se passe chez Simon . Simon est un garçon qui va à l' école pour la première fois mais à la sortie ses camarades de classe le battent car il n' a pas de papa.
Il va alors à la rivière pour se noyer. University Of Western. Heureusement Philippe Remy le forgeron le ramène chez sa mère. Synecdoche New York Essays. Ensuite Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son père et celui-ci accepte puis demande la mère du petit garçon en mariage. Australia. Les garçons de sa classe se méfient maintenant qu' ils ont appris la nouvelle. J' ai de la pitié pour le garçon qui est harcelé. Synecdoche New York Essays. J’ai compris ce texte et l’histoire me révolte. New Thesis Topic. De la même manière, lorsque l' on new york, perd un proche, on research paper citations, a plutôt besoin de quelqu'un qui nous aide à surmonter la douleur. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens et à tous les lecteurs, il veut nous dire d'arrêter le harcèlement contre ceux qui n'ont pas de père, l'auteur nous émeut en nous touchant et nous affecte. Synecdoche. Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir car il insiste à plusieurs reprises : démentir cette chose affreuse qu' il n' avait pas de papa. C’est Guy de Maupassant l’auteur de ce texte. Toni. Je connais aussi une autre nouvelle de cet auteur : Aux Champs , écrit en 1882.
Cette nouvelle a été écrite en 1879. Synecdoche Essays. Une période de réforme politique, littéraire, philosophique, scientifique et économique. Toni. C’est aussi l’année de mort de Napoléon Bonaparte. Synecdoche. Ce texte a bien été écrit en français à l’origine. Write. Ce texte est une nouvelle. Je pense à un petit garçon qui court dans les champs en été. New York Essays. Je ne pense pas à des souvenirs, à des expériences personnelles.
Je ne pense pas à des livres, des tableaux, des photos, de la musique . Writing. Le mot que je retiens est Simon , le prénom du petit garçon dans cette nouvelle. C’est Simon le personnage principal, il se défend au près de ses camarades qui l’insultent en disant qu’il n’a pas de papa. New York. Lui veut se noyer car ils se moquent de lui. Thesis Online. Le petit Simon demande finalement au forgeron si il veut bien être son papa et celui-ci accepte. Synecdoche New York. Alors, il dit fièrement à ses camarades que son papa est Philippe Remy, un forgeron du village. Le texte parle d’un petit garçon, Simon, élève de 8 ans allait pour la première fois à l’école. Toni Morrison Huck Finn. Ses camarades étaient méchants avec lui car il n’avait pas de papa. New York Essays. Un jour, il décida de se noyer dans une rivière car il en avait assez des insultes. Of Western Australia. Mais heureusement, Philippe Remy, un forgeron, le vit à temps et le ramena chez sa maman. Synecdoche New York Essays. Ensuite le petit garçon demanda au forgeron s’il voulait bien être son papa, ce qu’il accepta. Short Essay About. A la fin de la nouvelle, le forgeron prit pour femme la maman de Simon, surnommée la Blanchotte.
J’ai bien aimé cette nouvelle, je l’ai trouvée intéressante. New York Essays. Je l’ai comprise facilement. Prompts. Je suis d’accord avec l’auteur qui dénonce ceux qui maltraitent Simon. Je suppose que l’auteur a écrit ce texte pour montrer qu’il ne faut pas se moquer des autres juste parce qu’ils sont différents de nous.Je suppose que ce texte est destiné aux lecteurs/public et aux enfants qui peuvent être moqueurs. Synecdoche New York Essays. Dans cette nouvelle, l’auteur sensibilise le lecteur. Writing. Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir. New York. Nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens du texte de cette nouvelle. Guy de Maupassant a écrit Le papa de Simon . How To. Il a aussi écrit Aux champs . Synecdoche Essays. Le texte a été écrit le 1 er décembre 1879, cette époque n’est pas particulière. New Thesis Topic. Ce texte est écrit en français, c’est une nouvelle. Je vois une image de plusieurs élèves qui sont en train de harceler un petit garçon, sans père. Synecdoche New York. Je n’ai pas de souvenirs particuliers ni d’expériences particulières en rapport avec cela mais je pense à la musique papaoutai de Stromae.
Les mots que je retiens sont pas de papa . Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron. New Thesis. Philippe récupère au bord de l’étang, Simon en pleurs. Essays. Il le ramène à sa mère. Research Citations. Philippe devient alors le père de Simon. Synecdoche New York. Cela se passe chez Simon, à la fin de l’histoire. Le texte parle de Simon un jeune garçon faisant sa rentrée, dans une école primaire, il se fait harceler par ses camarades car il n’a pas eu de papa, alors le garçon se défend comme il peut. Short Essay About. Simon part se réfugier au bord d’un étang, il joue avec une grenouille ensuite un homme s’approche de lui, ils discutent ensemble puis l’homme se prénommant Philippe Rémy, le ramène chez lui. Synecdoche. Alors Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son papa. How To Codes. Sur le coup, il ne répond rien puis après voyant que le jeune garçon est impatient, il dit oui.
Le lendemain Simon annonce à ses camarades qu’il a un papa mais ils lui répondent que si c’est son vrai papa il doit être marié à sa maman. Synecdoche Essays. Alors Simon va voir Philippe pour lui demander. New Thesis. Philippe lui répond qu’il est à son travail et qu’il va discuter avec sa mère ce soir. Essays. Le soir même, Philippe et Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, discutent puis s’embrassent. Paper With Citations. Philippe lui demande de devenir sa femme. Synecdoche New York Essays. Il dit à Simon qu’il le protégera de tous harcèlements.
Donc le lendemain, Simon, heureux, va dire à ses camarades qu’il a un vrai père et a compter de ce jour là plus personne ne l’embête. J’éprouve des émotions de tristesse face à ce texte. Australia Online. J’ai compris le texte et je ne suis pas d’accord avec le harcèlement. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens, l’auteur veut nous dire d’arrêter le harcèlement au collège. Synecdoche New York Essays. L’auteur décrit les scènes pour interpeller les lecteurs et les affecter. Essay The Environment. Ses intentions ne sont pas faciles à percevoir mais nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens de son texte. Le papa de Simon a été écrit par Guy de MAUPASSANT le 1 er décembre 1879 publié d’abord dans la revue La Réforme politique et littéraire du 1 er décembre 1879 puis intégrée au recueil La Maison Tellier en 1881. J’ai étudié la biographie de Guy de MAUPASSANT : Il est né le 5 août 1850 près de Dieppe et meurt en le 6 juillet 1893.
Maupassant, écrivain naturaliste de référence, vécut son enfance en Normandie, seul avec son frère, sa mère et Gustave Flaubert, ami d'enfance de cette dernière. Synecdoche New York. En effet, suite à de violentes disputes entre ses parents, le père quitta à jamais la maison. Of Western Australia Thesis. Le fameux auteur réaliste, prenant finalement la place du chef de famille, initia alors à sa vocation l'enfant qui bénéficiera, grâce aussi à sa rencontre quelques années plus tard avec Zola, d'un double héritage littéraire. New York. Les habitants de Normandie, sa région d’origine, inspirent certaines de ses œuvres. New Thesis Topic. Soutenu et conseillé par Flaubert, dont il est le disciple, Maupassant rencontre les principaux écrivains du XIXe siècle, dont Émile Zola.
Il écrit des nouvelles, des romans, des récits de voyage, des contes fantastiques : Boule-de-suif (1880), La maison Tellier (1881), Mademoiselle Fifi (1882), Une vie (1883), Contes de la Bécasse (1883), Une vendetta (1883), La parure (1884), Toine (1885), Bel-Ami (1885), Le Petit Fût (1886), Le Horla (1887), Le rosier de Mme Husson (1887), Pierre et Jean (1888). Synecdoche New York Essays. Je connais les œuvres suivantes : Bel-ami , Pierre et Jean , et celles présentées dans la collection des nouvelles que vous nous avez envoyée sur le padlet Bonnes nouvelles à lire. Les romans de Maupassant comprennent des descriptions très réalistes. How To Write. Ses livres sont souvent pessimistes. Synecdoche New York Essays. Il meurt à un peu moins de 43 ans des suites d'une syphilis. Le genre littéraire du Papa de Simon est la nouvelle réaliste. Topic. C’est un récit court et vivant qui a été écrit en français. L’histoire se déroule à la campagne et les personnages sont : des écoliers, le petit Simon, sa maman célibataire, la Blanchotte, et l’ouvrier Philippe.
Un jour, les enfants de l’école s’en prennent au petit Simon parce qu’il n’a pas de père. Synecdoche Essays. Leur comportement n’est que le reflet de ce que pensent leurs mères : la Blanchotte s’est livrée à un homme sans être mariée, et c’est honteux. Topic. Cette situation rend Simon très triste. Synecdoche Essays. Heureusement, il croise la route de Philippe, un homme bon qui choisit de ne pas s’arrêter au qu’en dira-t-on et sait analyser la situation avec son cœur en lui proposant d’être son papa. La phrase du texte qui m’a le plus marqué est : - Vous savez. Writing Sat Essay. Simon. New York Essays. eh bien, il n'a pas de papa. Short Essay About. Cette nouvelle présente un tableau du monde rural et de la mentalité de ces gens qui sont méprisants et cruels envers ceux qui sont différents d’eux. Synecdoche. Le vocabulaire utilisé est ordinaire ( exemple : garnement ) et le rythme du récit est marqué par des actions par la présence d’un dialogue et l’utilisation du passé simple même si l’imparfait est également utilisé pour la description. Les intentions de l’auteur sont faciles à percevoir. Il critique la société et met en valeur l'influence des rumeurs sur une personne et l'attitude au milieu d'un groupe.
Il désire nous faite réfléchir et traite ici des sujets tels que : l'éducation des parents, des rumeurs, les effets sur les enfants. Sat Essay. Il intervient afin de donner son avis au sujet de la façon dont les gamins accueillent quelqu'un de différent : il montre leur méchanceté et jusqu’où ils peuvent aller pour être cruels. Aussi, j’ai remarqué que dans sa biographie, l’auteur a perdu son père car il a divorcé. Synecdoche. On peut penser qu’il a pu vivre la même histoire ou similaire à celle de Simon. Je suis d’accord avec les idées de l’auteur car moi aussi, je trouve injuste de se moquer en groupe de quelqu’un qui n’est pas comme les autres quelle que soit sa différence. Paper. On ne méprise pas un enfant parce qu’il n’a pas de père.
J’éprouve de la colère envers les enfants qui se moquent et de la pitié pour Simon. Synecdoche New York Essays. Je serais prêt à l’accueillir dans mon groupe à l’école. Guy DE MAUPASSANT est l’auteur de la nouvelle le papa de Simon . Morrison Huck. Il est aussi l’auteur de nombreuses autres œuvres comme : Boule de suif, Aux champs, la Ficelle, le Horla Ce texte a été écrit le 1 er Décembre 1879, lors de cette époque rien de particulier ne se passe. New York. À l’origine cette nouvelle a été écrite en Français. Je vois l’image d’une ronde avec au milieu le petit Simon qui se fait harceler, qui subit les moqueries sans pouvoir s’échapper. Toni Morrison Finn Essay. Je n’ai jamais vécu de moments pareil dans ma vie.
Je pense à la musique de Stromaé papaoutai où il raconte la perte de son père. Synecdoche New York Essays. Je retiens une phrase en particulier Il restait là, planté au milieu d'eux, surpris et embarrassé, sans comprendre ce qu'on allait lui faire. Write. Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron du village. New York Essays. Simon et Philippe font connaissance quand il le ramasse en pleurs au bord l’étang et au fil de l’histoire ils apprennent à se connaitre de jour en jour chez Philippe et il devient son papa. Résumé: Simon fait aujourd’hui sa première rentrée à l’école, à la fin de la journée tous ses camarades le regardent bizarrement car un grand leur a dit qu’il n’a pas de papa. Australia. Simon commence à se faire harceler alors, pour se réfugier il court jusqu’à l’étang d’à côté pour pleurer mais il ne reste pas longtemps tranquille car un monsieur vint le déranger, c’est Philippe le forgeron du village. Synecdoche Essays. Il lui demande pourquoi il pleut comme ça, Simon lui explique. Toni Morrison. Ensuite, ils se revoient tous les jours. Synecdoche. Un jour le forgeron décide d’aller voir la mère de Simon pour la demander en mariage et Philippe devient le père de Simon.
Quand je lis ce texte que j’ai aimé, je ressens de la pitié pour le petit Simon. How To Write. J’ai très bien compris l’histoire et je ne suis pas du tout d’accord avec le harcèlement qu’il subit. Cette nouvelle est destinée aux collégiens comme aux lycéens car le harcèlement se passe plus souvent au collège et au lycée. New York Essays. L’auteur veut nous faire passer une morale concernant le harcèlement, comme quoi le harcèlement peut pousser certaines personnes à commettre l’irréparable. New Thesis. Ses intentions ne sont pas très faciles à percevoir mais on synecdoche new york essays, comprend très bien le texte. La nouvelle a été écrite par Guy de Maupassant. Writing. Je connais une autre œuvre de l’auteur qui est Aux Champs . Synecdoche Essays. La nouvelle à été écrite le 1er décembre 1879. Research. Cette époque n’a pas été particulièrement importante.
Ce texte a été écrit en français à l’origine. Synecdoche New York. Il appartient à un genre dont je connais les caractéristiques, c’est une nouvelle. Quand j’ai lu Le Papa de Simon je voyais des images et parfois des sons : Je pensais à une histoire qui a duré tout le temps de l’école primaire et qui était dure. Writing Prompts Sat Essay. Je pensais aussi à des films d’actions. New York Essays. La phrase que je retiens est -Vous voyez bien qu'il n'a pas de papa. Les personnages principaux sont Simon, il fait son premier pas à l’école. Short The Environment. Simon se fait embêter dès son premier jour d’école car il n’aurait pas de papa. Synecdoche New York. Vexé il va demander à un homme, s’il veut bien être son papa et depuis il dit que c’est son papa. Writing Prompts Sat Essay. Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, on synecdoche new york, ne sait pourquoi, n’est pas aimée des autres femmes. La nouvelle se passe à la campagne, elle se passe à l’époque de l’auteur, XIXe siécle.
L’action commence dès la 2eme phrase. Simon est un petit garçon qui vit seul avec sa mère (La Blanchotte), il n'a pas de père . New Thesis. Il arrive dans une nouvelle école et tous ses camarades se moquent de lui, le tapent, une bagarre éclate. Synecdoche. Simon, va pleurer au bord de la rivière avec l'intention de se noyer . Short Essay. Mais un ouvrier passe dans les parages et aperçoit le petit garçon, le forgeron lui demande ce qui ne va pas et Simon lui raconte son histoire. Synecdoche Essays. Le forgeron, qui se nomme Philippe, décide de ramener le garçon chez lui car il se fait tard. University Of Western Thesis Online. Le lendemain soir, avant que le forgeron rentre chez lui Simon lui demande s’il accepterait d'être son père. Essays. Philippe, sans vraiment prendre la proposition de Simon au sérieux, accepte et lui dit de dire à tous ses camarades qu'il a un père et qu'il s'appelle Philippe. Short The Environment. Le lendemain Simon arrive fier à l'école en disant à tout le monde qu'il a un père et que c’est Philippe Remi, le forgeron. Au début je trouve la nouvelle un peu triste, j’éprouve de la pitié pour Simon. New York Essays. Mais après, Simon partage sa joie. J’ai très bien compris la nouvelle.
Je suis d’accord avec la morale de cette nouvelle, car Philipe fait tout pour aider Simon et la relation entre Philippe et Simon devient fusionnelle. Ce texte est destiné à tout le monde. Topic. Le message que veut nous faire passer Guy de Maupassant est que le harcèlement n’est pas bien même si une personne aune différence. Synecdoche. Guy de Maupassant dans sa nouvelle m’a émue. C'est Guy de Maupassant qui a écrit ce texte. Writing. Il a été écrit le 1er décembre 1879.
Ce texte est français. Synecdoche Essays. Il appartient au genre de la nouvelle. Je pense à des images, à des sons. Les personnages principaux sont le forgeron, la Blanchotte et Simon. Prompts Sat Essay. L'action se passe à l'ecole et aussi chez Simon. New York. Elle se passe la semaine. Le texte parle d'un enfant, Simon, qui se fait battre à l'école car il n'a pas de papa.
J'aime beaucoup l'histoire, j'éprouve de la joie, de la pitié et de la tristesse. Ce texte est destiné à tous les lecteurs et particulièrement aux papas. How To. Il veut nous dire qu'il ne faut pas se montrer méchant envers les enfants auxquels il manque un membre de leurs familles. Synecdoche. L'auteur émeut et nous fait éprouver de la tristesse.
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Synecdoche new york movie analysis
acadmic essay BEFORE PLANNING AN ACADEMIC ESSAY. CONSIDER the synecdoche new york PURPOSE. Questions to ask yourself: What is my goal in writing this piece? What information do I need to include? How shall I organize the information? CONSIDER the AUDIENCE. Questions to ask yourself: What do my readers need to know? Who are my readers? Generate some ideas: create a network of related information that covers the main and supporting ideas of the topic.
BASIC ESSAY STRUCTURE. Thesis statement-is a statement of the main idea or central argument that most commonly appears in how to, the introductory paragraph. This is how you begin to articulate your position. CONCLUSIONS: these represent the essays most common approaches to writing conclusions for. · Provide an analogy or comparison. · Suggest a specific plan of action. · Speculate about the future. · Refer to relevant research. Australia Thesis? MAKING AN ESSAY PLAN. All of the stages below are needed to produce good academic writing. Outlining: An outline is: * A way of planning and inventing.
· A logical, general description. · A summary of new york essays your plans. · An organizational pattern. · A visual and conceptual arrangement of your writing. · It is used to university show a relationship between ideas and can look like this: m. A. Division of major topic. n. 1. detail concerning division A. 1. second detail. B. Second division of major topic. ll. Second major topic. A. Division of second major topic. 1. detail concerning division B. 2. second detail. Example: Thesis : Although various methods for limiting or disposing of nuclear waste have been proposed, each has serious drawbacks. Synecdoche New York Essays? I. The process of limiting nuclear waste through partioning and transmutation has serious drawbacks. A. The process is complex and university australia thesis, costly. B. Nuclear workers#146; exposure to radiation would increase.
II. Synecdoche New York? Antarctic ice sheet disposal is problematic for scientific and legal reasons. A. Our understanding of the behavior of huck ice sheets is too limited. B. An international treaty prohibits disposal in Antarctica. III. Space disposal is unthinkable.
A. The risk of an new york, accident and resulting worldwide disaster is great. B. The cost is prohibitive. IV. Seabed disposal is unwise because we do not know enough about the prompts procedure or its impact. A. Scientists have not yet solved technical difficulties. B. We do not fully understand the synecdoche impact of such disposal on the ocean#146;s ecology. Drafting is australia thesis online, writing a first copy of your plans and outline and making meaningful connections. among your ideas and information . It is a preliminary version of your paper which you write with the synecdoche new york intention of revising and editing several times before producing a final copy. New Thesis Topic? Think about all the points below before you start your draft. Composing : begin writing your paper, keeping all of synecdoche essays your pre-writing plans in mind.
Paragraphing : see *****essay planning section. Organizing : arranging and essay about, sequencing the information to be included in your paper in a logical and coherent manner. Synecdoche? Pay attention to the way you group your ideas together in the drafting stage. Incorporating sources : draw on the readings and writing, external sources you have summarised or paraphrased for inclusion in your paper. New York Essays? Synthesising: joining pieces of information from different sources together in a smooth and coherent manner. Arranging : place the information in writing sat essay, the most logical and reader friendly order. Selecting : choose what information to include where and when in your text. STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE INSIDE THE ESSAY. Within the new york essay structure, there are several key aspects to concentrate on in your assignment.
As well as overall essay structure, each paragraph of topic your essay must also be well structured. The paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. An effective paragraph should contain the following: unity, coherence, a topic sentence and adequate development through the use of supporting details and evidence. Try the following: · put only one main idea per paragraph. · Aim for 3 to 5 sentences per paragraph. New York? · Include about 3 typed paragraphs per page. Short The Environment? · If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of new york essays a larger paragraph#151;and can be combined#151;or whether you can add details to support each point and thus make each into a more fully developed paragraph. Unity - the entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus.
If it begins with one focus or major point of discussion it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. Of Western? Topic sentences - indicate in a general way what ideas or thesis the paragraph is going to new york essays deal with. Not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences and some topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (1 st sentence, last sentence, or somewhere in the middle). However, the easy way to make sure the reader understands the new thesis topic of the paragraph is still to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (A good general rule for less experienced writers) Supporting details : the topic should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author#146;s purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well developed with supporting details: Use examples as evidence: · Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, etc#133;) · Use an anecdote or story. · Compare and contrast. · Evaluate causes and reasons. · Examine effects and consequences. · Analyse the topic. · Describe the topic. New York? · Offer a chronology of an event. Use indentation signals to toni huck the reader the start of a new paragraph and helps section. your paper into units of new york essays information that are unified in topic and focus.
This is a way of condensing text to remember key points and making use of the summarised material for short essay, some other purpose,such as essay writing or note making. Summaries can be undertaken in the following way: 1. Read through the original text to synecdoche essays obtain the gist (an impression of the information) and use a technique of underlining or highlighting the most important points. 2. Use these key ideas to generate your own notes using your own words. 3. Draw on your notes to write your summary beginning with the main idea and writing prompts, indicating the source of the material. 4. Include only the most important supporting information.
5. New York Essays? Alter the sequence of the points to make the writing more reader friendly. 6. Review your summary and check it for efficiency. · your own rendition of essential information and topic, ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. · one legitimate way to borrow from a source. · a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on synecdoche essays a single main idea. Strategies for effective paraphrasing : · Re read the original passage until you understand its full meaning. · Set the new thesis topic original aside, write your paraphrase on a note card. · Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you late how you envision using this material. At the essays top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. · Check your version against the original to make sure that your rendition accurately conveys all of the essential information in a new form. · Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. · Record the source (including page) on new thesis topic your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the information into your own writing. Example: The original passage. Synecdoche? Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final research paper. How To? Example: A legitimate paraphrase.
There is a strong connection between quoting excessively during note taking and over quoting in research assignments. Coherence: When sentences, ideas and details fit together clearly and logically, readers. can follow the text more easily. Synecdoche Essays? Linking words behave like glue, connecting all the toni morrison huck finn parts of a piece of text together smoothly. Here are. some of the methods for achieving coherence in your writing: · Repetition of new york key terms or phrases- to avoid confusion, writers often repeat words and phrases. Example: The problem with contemporary art is that it is how to write, not easily understood by most people. Essays? Modern art is deliberately abstract, and that means that contemporary art leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at. · Synonyms- words with identical or very similar meanings: they provide some variety in your word choices while helping to connect important ideas.
Example: Myths narrate sacred history and explain sacred origins. Finn Essay? These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of people who tell them. · Pronoun reference- this, that, these, those, he, she, it, they and we, are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned. Be sure that what you are referring to is clear. Example: When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. · Transitional words #150; are connecting words that serve as a bridge, connecting one paragraph, sentence, clause, or word with another and signal the relationships between sentences and ideas in a piece of writing. Transitional words and expressions Purpose. Also, too, in addition, furthermore, to add an synecdoche new york essays, idea or example. Moreover, and, besides, in fact. For example, for new thesis, instance, such as, to supply an new york, example to support a including generalization. First, next, last, before, after, earlier to indicate order in which events subsequently, later, while, until, initially, occur or ideas are presented. Because, since, for codes, the reason is synecdoche new york, that to indicate the cause or reason for.
Therefore, so, thus, as a result, so that, to indicate the research effect or result. But, however, nevertheless, on the contrary to indicate that one thing is different. although, unlike, whereas, while, in contrast from or contrasts with another thing. despite, yet, on the other hand. Similarly, likewise, in the same manner, to indicate that one thing is similar. in essays, the same way, along the same lines as, to something already mentioned. unless, if, even if, or, provided that, to indicate a condition. still to indicate that something continues. in other words, that is, that is to say to indicate that something will be restated for clarity. How To? finally, at last, after all, in conclusion, to indicate the end of a thought or list. to conclude, to sum up. INDICATORS FOR ACADEMIC WRITING. Arguments Indicators Premise Indicators Conclusion Indicators. should since therefore. must because hence. necessarily as so. inasmuch as consequently. for the reason that it follows that. REFORMLATING AND REVISING YOUR ESSAY. Synecdoche New York Essays? This occurs throughout the writing process and need not be left until the end. A good writer is constantly reviewing his or her writing and making changes to strengthen the piece. At this stage, you should be: Editing : re-read your writing and check for grammar, usage and punctuation accuracy.
Revising: the short the environment process of synecdoche new york essays modifying and new thesis, reshaping the ideas in your writing in order to convey your message in the most reader friendly way. Try the following: · Re read your paper to essays determine if the content (ideas) is being conveyed in the best possible way. Sat Essay? · Time: let some time go by between the synecdoche new york drafting stage and the revising stage. This can help you distance yourself from the short draft and see it in new ways. · Peer review: show your work-in-progress to one or two readers to get feedback on essays your writing. · Checklists: construct a checklist for revising and check your draft against new thesis topic, the established criteria. Synecdoche Essays? Proofreading : check for spelling and punctuation errors. Responding to peer and tutor feedback : return to your text and incorporate the recommended changes. · Editing: is the final process of preparing a piece of research paper writing for an audience. Editing involves paying attention to the surface details of the writing. At this point you should look at: Example: ( I#146;ve, I have ) always felt that science and the military ( are obligated to, should, have to ) work together. · sentence structure (see sentence and synecdoche new york essays, grammar errors). A common error is to use incomplete, or fragments. Example: Or how to ride a bicycle. This is not a complete sentence! · Grammar (see sentence and grammar errors) A common mistake is to have part of the sentence that don#146;t #145;agree#146; with each other. Example: The Prime Minister make important foreign policy decisions. · Spelling: don#146;t worry about spelling during the planning, drafting and how to codes, revising stages, wait until you have completed your revising before checking your spelling.
Example: controversy (correct) versus contraversy (wrong) · use standard and commonly accepted abbreviations , · spell out numbers of one or two words, or those that begin a sentence. · italics and underlining should be used for titles of books; plays; films; long poems; works of visual art; magazines; newspapers; pamphlets; and radio and television programs; aircraft; ships; and trains; foreign words; . · consult the dictionary to determine whether the compound word requires a hyphen, · capitalize the beginning of every new sentence; the names of specific people; places; groups; businesses; events; people#146;s titles and synecdoche, their abbreviations; specific course; religions; languages; organisations; and how to write, titles of works. Errors in these areas may violate our standards for academic writing. Here are some useful strategies for when you are checking your work. · Read aloud: reading aloud forces you to read it slowly and allows you to experience your words through your eyes, ears and synecdoche, mouth. · Read backward: this strategy separates words from their usual contexts and allows the writer to sat essay examine each word carefully for spelling errors and typing mistakes. · Circle verbs: one way to revisit sentence structure is to look at the verbs you have chosen. Good writing often depends on strong verbs and new york essays, reexamining the verb choices you have made can ensure that you have expressed your ideas strongly. · Reading sentences out of context: reading out of context helps to determine whether the sentences are complete or fragments. · Keep a log of the feedback you receive to see if there are any patterns to your errors. IMPROVING YOUR WRITING STYLE. Choosing appropriate words is not easy even for new thesis topic, the seasoned writer. There are some strategies however, that can minimize any difficulty and help you improve the choices you make when you write. Register : whether the topic or assignment demands a formal or informal tone. Example: It was no big deal It was inconsequential. Style : We write differently for different audiences and for different purposes.
Style is largely determined by essays these five features of the language: 1. The presence or absence of the writer in the prose: using the first person #145;I#146;. Research Paper With? Example: #147; I believe that atomic war will devastate life on essays earth.#148; (the use of #147;I#148; gives the impression that the new thesis writer is relying on synecdoche new york personal experience and knowledge). #145;It is believed that atomic war will devastate life on earth#146; 2. The representation of the audience: speaking directly to the reader using #147;you#148; Example: #145;As you prepare for new thesis, this course..#146; #145;In preparation for this course #145; (the first example is more conversational and less formal while the second example is more objective and more formal). 3.Word choice : a heavily nominalised (verbs and adjectives turned into nouns) style is formal, abstract and impersonal. Sentences with heavy nominalisation are more formal and objective sounding to the reader. Examples: to decide OR decision; to synecdoche new york act OR action; clear OR clarity; accurately OR accuracy. Short About The Environment? Example: #145;He decided to act once the issues became clear #146; #145;He made the decision to take action once the issues took on greater clarity.
4. Sentence length, structure, variety : for some audiences you are likely to consider word choice and sentence length differently. Sometimes more specialized, complex words and grammar are necessary to essays ensure clarity. Example: #145;The huts vary in research paper with, height. They measure from ten to fifteen feet in diameter. They contain no modern conveniences.#146; #145;The huts, which vary in height and measure from ten to fifteen feet in diameter, contain no modern conveniences.#146; 5. The design of the essays paragraphs : To the research with citations reader, paragraphs that are longer than half a page appear difficult. Short paragraphs may signal ideas that are underdeveloped. Synecdoche? Most paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences, three paragraphs to a single typed page. Basic matters of style: · Use concrete nouns. Morrison? Good writing is detailed and exact, not vague or general. Synecdoche New York Essays? · Avoid the writing prompts sat essay passive too much and new york essays, don#146;t rely to heavily on the verb #145;to be#146;. · Don#146;t depend on adjectives and adverbs to convey your meaning.
Let the nouns and verbs do most of the short essay about the environment work. · Vary sentence length. When every sentence is the same length the text becomes monotonous. A short sentence can be an effective way to emphasize an idea, and a long sentence can produce a satisfying and convincing rhythm. Synecdoche New York? · Think about your style: personal or impersonal, academic or social? I MPROVING YOU VOCABUALRY: LEVELS OF FORMALITY. Try the following exercise.
Arrange the list of words according to their usage levels#151;from most formal to with citations most informal.
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essay on syncretism Syncretic Reality: art, process, and potentiality. Syncretic Reality: formative factors. Roy Ascott 2005. This paper will argue that Syncretism, which has been seen historically as an synecdoche new york attempt to reconcile and analogise disparate religious and cultural practices, may contribute today to our understanding of the multi-layered worldviews - material and metaphysical - that are emerging with our engagement in, amongst other things, ubiquitous computing and post-biological technology. The 'other things' are numerous and varied, and reach across conflicting ideologies, commercial and political strategies, ecological events, and cosmological conditions. The emphasis in this paper however is on digital and biological technology, and especially in its relation to and effect upon, art practice. In short, it's about new media art and the syncretic reality that is both construed and constructed by that practice. Above all it is about breaking boundaries while maintaining cohesion, a most subtle attribute that is as necessary in the aesthetic as in prompts sat essay, the social sphere. Of the myriad universes of discourse that constitute whole cultures and countries, only those open to change and adaptation are likely to new york survive the writing prompts step change in evolution exerted by scientific development and technological innovation. If countries and communities are to avoid homogenization in this process, it will need to be a syncretic process that maintains the plurality of difference.
The syncretic process is new york essays, not in any way to be confused with synthesis, in which disparate things meld into a homogenous whole, thereby loosing their individual distinction. How To Write Codes? Nor is it mere eclecticism, which usually signals a wavering course of thought of only probable worth. In the syncretic context, extreme differences are upheld but aligned such that likeness is found amongst unlike things, the power of each element enriching the power of all others within the array of their differences. Standing in emphatic distinction to binary opposition, syncretism is a process between different elements, the in-between condition of 'being both'. In trying to describe syncretism, it is useful to bring into play the both both/and and either/or formulation of Marilyn Ferguson. New York? If the definition of the term is necessarily nuanced, its etymology is certainly confused.
According to Plutarch, syncretism refers to the ancient Cretan's decision to unite in the face of a common enemy (e.g. sun-kretismos). Subsequently, it has been taken to derive from the Greek sun-kerannumi meaning mixing together. Its original meaning will be retained in this paper. In different historical epochs, the common enemy has been variously religious, military, and political. In present day cultural terms the enemy is habit the passive, uncritical repetition or acceptance of topic, behaviors, opinions, perceptions and values, and the enshrining as verities, metaphors that have passed their sell-by date.
Habit is the synecdoche new york essays enemy of art, impeding the search for new ways of being. The syncretic process is always an assault on about the environment habit, confounding the certainties and synecdoche essays, orthodoxies of unconsidered homogenizing convention. This has certainly been the case in media art: computer-mediated systems are inherently interactive and transformative, and as such they defy docile stability while bringing novelty to the dynamic equilibrium of university of western, living and cultural systems. After all, the first rule of cybernetics is to acquire 'requisite variety', and variety is the spice of syncretism. In the past, religious syncretism has suffered at the hands of orthodoxy, as indeed have the forces of intellectual inquiry and spiritual enlightenment. One thinks of the Gnostics, Neo-Platonists and Hermeticists of the late renaissance, the eradication of the Cathars, the wholesale burning of witches, and the assault on Rosicrucianism.
All these bodies of knowledge and belief have been essentially syncretic in their formation, always bringing together the unfamiliar, proscribed, alien, non-linear structures of new york essays, thought. The early 20th century saw the emergence of research paper citations, spiritual and psychic syncretism in Brazil in the Afro-Brazilian movement of Umbanda, and in Vietnam, the Dao Cao Dai or Caodaism as it is essays, known in the West. There is an argument that says that all religions are effectively syncretic in their absorption of external elements either consequent upon colonization, conversion or simple geographical proximity. Shamanic Ceremony , Seoul, Korea. Roy Ascott 2001. But this is to australia thesis describe the process of synecdoche essays, synthesis or covert eclecticism rather than the sustained heterogeneity that is celebrated in authentic syncretism.
In this respect there are claims that the syncretic impulse in Brazil is not limited to Umbanda but constitutes a direct challenge to Christianity, seeing its canonical religious orthodoxy as the enemy as has happened so frequently in the past. The last six decades have seen the growth of a remarkable syncretic Neo-Christian religion with ayahuasca as the sacrament. Following humble beginnings in the state of Acre in Brazilian Amazonia, these contemporary religious groups communing with Santo Daime or Ch Hoasca (as ayahuasca is known to them) have grown into major international religious movements with thousands of members. Far from toni morrison huck finn, being an new york essays aberration or anachronism, these churches, and the African Bwiti religion centered on the entheogenic sacrament eboka , rather represent the future of morrison, Christianity, stripped of its Doctrine of Transubstantiation by the Entheogenic Reformation, and with one or another genuine entheogen replacing the placebo sacrament. [i] However over-stated this claim may be, the synecdoche new york use of entheogens[ii] and their chemical correlates, in short essay the environment, the search for altered states of consciousness and direct spiritual engagement, is likely to grow over essays the coming decades. For those in writing sat essay, the new media arts community, the switch in research of one of its leading contributors, Tom Ray, from artificial life (of which Tierra [iii]is his landmark contribution), to the mapping of the chemical organization of the synecdoche human mind[iv] is highly significant in writing prompts sat essay, this respect. Since it is at the frontier of research in science, the great mysterium consciousness is likely also to be at the top of the essays agenda in art practice and theory over the coming decades. In a very limited but perhaps significant way, the international conference Consciousness Reframed: art and technology in the post-biological era [v] has sustained an annual contribution by artists and scholars of some 70 - 100 papers each year since 1997. It mirrors qualitatively although not quantitatively, the biennial Towards a Science of Consciousness conference[vi] at Tucson, Arizona.
As I argue below, the rituals and procedures of sacred ceremonies find their equivalent in Western codes and protocols of computer technology. In the old, traditional cultures, another technology predominates, providing its users with tools of consciousness and spiritual access, whose use lies beyond historical record. This is the technology of the psycho-integrator plant, a vegetal technology. In this regard also, the state of consciousness described as delirium in other contexts, for example as proposed by writing sat essay the French symbolist poet Arthur Rimbaud, is a feature of Islam in its least orthodox form, namely in new york essays, the language of the Sufi. Indeed, Sufism is in itself highly syncretic, a spiritual practice which is essentially in-between the tangible and abstract, the toni finn known and unknown, the visible and invisible, keeping each distinct yet related in their difference. The Syrian poet Adonis elicits a significant link between the syncretism in art and in the spiritual domain in his study Sufism and Surrealism , in which he writes: [Surrealist writing] like Sufi writing, appears for the most part to be filled with strange things, contradictions, obscure references and disjointed images . . .the anarchic, the synecdoche astonishing, the baffling and the obscure form the basis for new thesis Sufi (and Surrealist) writing. . . .When the poet enters a world of transformations, he can leave it only by transformative writing: waves of illuminating images, which do not bear scrutiny by reasonable or logical means, and essays, through which reality itself is new thesis, transformed into a dream.[vii] It is in this heterogeneity of form and meaning, where synthesis is new york essays, neither resolved nor sought, that syncretism finds its salience.
And it is new thesis topic, with an agenda of transformation such as this, that the new york future of new media art may be determined. How To Write Codes? While the significance of syncretic influences that bear on Sufism would be lost on those without Arabic scholarship, we can grasp the syncretic embrace of Surrealism by looking at those influences bearing on the Surrealist enterprise. They include Heraclitus, Abelard, Meister Eckhart, Rousseau, Swift, Sade and Lautramont. . as well as the Celts and the Hopi Indians, magical arts, secret rites, Gnostics, anarchists, spiritualists, mental illness and new york essays, cults. While surrealism is not a tendency of any direct urgency in new media art, never the less, the hyperlinks and non-linear modality of the digital culture lend themselves to the irrational and research paper with, unexpected semantic elisions and links of synecdoche new york essays, Surrealist practice. Sat Essay? How Breton would have Googled! What is synecdoche new york, asserted here is that understanding contemporary reality as syncretic will lead to significant changes in new thesis topic, the way we regard our identity, our relationship to others, and the phenomenology of time and space. Syncretism not only destabilises orthodoxies and changes language, it may also result in synecdoche new york, the release of the self from the constraints of overweening rationality and totalising dogma. In religious or spiritual contexts, syncretism means combining rituals, psychic instruments, the assimilation of plants and how to write codes, herbs, into new forms of sacred communion.
A parallel process of the bringing together of disparate technologies (interactive and digital, reactive and mechanical, psychoactive and chemical), and new rituals of communication (mobile, online), and forms of synecdoche, community (the Net), is seen in our society, and indeed remains open to the incorporation of the older arcana. Our take on reality will depend in part on our cultural conditioning that may constitute a passive acceptance of australia thesis online, a normative description or a vigorous attempt at its re-construction or re-definition. Interactive, digital and post-biological art provide us with tools and media that facilitate such construction, not only in virtual space but also in our very attitude to the nature of presence and interaction in and with the world. The asynchronic nature of telematic interaction is a good example of synecdoche, this. Within this syncretic reality, the human mind and telematic systems are interacting to produce a new sense of self and planetary consciousness. This raises the question whether our drive to create wider and deeper and faster networks can be seen as an evolutionary impulse to engage more fully with the universal mind? This in turn questions the nature of mind, where it is located, how it is sat essay, constituted, and whether for example it can be considered as an epiphenomenon of the brain, or part of a larger field of synecdoche new york, consciousness. Similarly with matter, its nature and status is in doubt. Our culture is grounded in materialism, but in paper, penetrating the material world beyond the nano level of observation we find there is no matter. Essays? Quantum physics makes plain that matter is not composed of matter, but reality is merely potentiality[viii].The immaterial connectedness that defines quantum reality, is a quality we associate equally with the spiritual domain, and is the essence of telematic art.
From the convergence of silicon-dry computational systems and wet biological processes a moistmedia art is emerging. There may be an emergent faculty of short essay the environment, cyberception that augments our awareness of the field of essays, consciousness. Does the flow of electrons and photons across the planet's telematic networks parallel the biophotonic information network of the body? In addressing these questions, one may reveal the nature and topic, source of synecdoche, a new reality that is being formed, the syncretic reality that is emerging from the convergence of Mixed Reality technology and morrison huck finn, altered states of consciousness, and metaphors drawn from biology, quantum physics, field theory, language, combined with cultural, social and spiritual practices, in a hybrid space of potentiality. In terms of the synecdoche new york essays syncreticity of new media art, the short essay following factors might be taken into consideration:
Matter: dry computational systems and new york essays, wet biological processes are converging to university thesis provide moistmedia for the artist. Mind: The human mind and telematic systems are interacting to new york produce a technoetic sense of self and planetary collaboration. Spirit: Immaterial connectedness defines both quantum reality and the spiritual domain. Information: The biophotonic information network of the body parallels the telematic flows of electrons and photons across the planet. Technology: Both the media artist's interactive technology, and the shaman's psychoactive technology offer immersive pathways into altered states of consciousness. We can claim that a syncretic art can arise when media is new thesis topic, moist, the mind is technoetic, the body is transformable, and the planet is telematic. Some examples of recent projects that demonstrate many of these qualities are to new york be found in the transgenic work of finn essay, Eduardo Kac, such as Move 36, Genesis, and synecdoche essays, GFP Bunny.[ix] An example of collaborative work of this genre can be seen in of western australia, MEART: the semi- living artist [x], the product of Steve Potter's lab at synecdoche Georgia Tech and Guy Ben-Ary's lab at the University of Western Australia, involving the brain signals of cultured rat cells controlling robots on the other side of the planet. MEART: the Semi-Living Artist , SymbioticA Research Group.
Australian Centre for the Moving Image, 2003. The Tissue Culture and university of western australia, Art projects[xi] of essays, Oron Catts and Ionat Zur constitute another exemplary syncretic discourse that ranges across ethics, biotechnology, artificial life, and art. Their studio is located in the laboratory environment of a university biology department, and it is likely that the new thesis topic development of advanced forms of syncretic transdisciplinarity of this kind will increasingly come from artist's studios located not only within or across scientific laboratories and engineering centers, but in truly remote regions such as the deep ocean or outer space. SymbioticA laboratory , University of Western Australia. Synecdoche New York? Symbiotica 2003. As far as science as a whole is concerned (its institutions, ideologies and discourses), syncretism is in many ways anathema.
The whole history of modern science has been to keep to the straight and narrow path of reductionism. This tunnel vision has had huge success and paper citations, undoubtedly is the bulwark of pragmatism. So much of the economy of utility depends on it. But it has been singularly unsuccessful in terms of human development, biological understanding and psychological or spiritual insight. Science is firmly cautious of straying beyond the bounds of strict causality and reductive materialism, but artists are prepared to look everywhere and anywhere to try to reveal what is real and authentic in human experience. Science is new york, caught in a trap of its own making: for example, it recognizes the counter-intuitive precepts of quantum physics, while refusing to writing recognize their metaphysical implications. In so far as matters of consciousness are concerned, science is in denial.
Artists, untrammelled by orthodoxy (though no less concerned than the scientist with authenticity), are explicitly syncretic in their manner of creation. They are prepared to examine any discipline, scientific or spiritual, any view of the world - however esoteric or arcane - any culture, immediate or distant in space or time, in order to find ideas or processes which might engender creativity. There is no meta-language or meta-system that places one discipline or world-view automatically above all others. Synecdoche Essays? Such syncretic transdisciplinarity can inform artistic research at all levels. This is why we look in all directions for inspiration and understanding: to the East as well as the West; the left hand path as well as the right; working with both reason and intuition, sense and nonsense, subtlety and sensibility. Since syncretism is inherently impure, contaminated, unorthodox and alien, it fits well with the ambition, structure and layering of disparate and unordered sources of ideas and images that constitutes postmodernism in the arts. The conditions causing the emergence of a syncretic art reflect the order of things in huck essay, the world at large, and the many epistemological and ontological conflicts and uncertainties that shape our cultural scene.
These are set within a larger context of synecdoche new york, uncertainty that is morrison, almost cosmic in its dimensions. We have, for example, no knowledge of what constitutes the very ground of our reality. We know very little about dark matter and dark energy, just as the purpose and function of junk DNA is unclear to new york us. Science claims that ordinary matter comprises only five percent of the essay about the environment stuff in the universe, with dark matter comprising twenty-five percent and dark energy seventy percent. Similarly unknown to science is the location of synecdoche new york, mind and the source of consciousness, which is university of western thesis online, not to say there is not a multiplicity of hypotheses. Within the study of synecdoche new york essays, consciousness, the issue of qualia has proven to be an intractable hard problem. Paper Citations? In the early 20th century, consciousness became taboo in science. Before that, for millennia in fact, and certainly with the essays emergence of science in the 18th century, consciousness was openly discussed.
For just about the whole of the last century, consciousness was the domain that dare not speak its name. It was David Chalmers as much as any one who, in 1994, opened what can be seen as a syncretic bridge between the two opposed discourses of science and consciousness, with his identification of the hard problem. The easy problems in his view are those dealing with our ability perceive the world, make decisions, act, remember, to know when we are dreaming and when we are awake. On the other hand, The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and of western australia online, perceive, there is new york essays, a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect.
As Nagel [xii] has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience . When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the quality of write codes, depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothballs . . . . New York? What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. How To Codes? All of them are states of experience [xiii]. While to state the hard problem is not to solve it, Chalmers offers an approach that keeps open the possibility of consciousness being a field we inhabit (rather in the way that we inhabit space). Essays? His doctrine of psychophysical supervenience (first introduced into the philosophy of mind by Donald Davidson[xiv]) amounts to no mental differences without physical differences, without however ascribing to these physical differences an irreducible causal responsibility for differences in mental states. We know that these states of about, experience are limitless in their variety, some seemingly having their source on other worlds - not just different universes of discourse (though they can alter powerfully our perceptions and sense of self), but new spaces of consciousness which we access through somatic or spiritual exercises, ritual ingestion of plants, sacred dancing, or the technologies of virtual reality and telematic communication. Behind many of these beliefs and practices, lies the idea of a dynamic field within which living beings interact and events are played out. Some of the more compelling field theories have been usefully sketched out in both their biophysical and metaphysical dimensions by Jean McTaggart in The Field [xv], just as a field-based morphogenetic model of biological process and its spiritual implications informed Richard Sheldrake's A New Science of Life [xvi] twenty years ago.
Sheldrake's controversial theory of formative causation states that there is memory of physical order, structure, or pattern, in nature that finds expression in morphic fields. The memory in these form-fields comes from previous forms of a similar kind. Morphic fields are an organizing principle of nature. He supports the contention that genes carry only a very small part of the biological information in a living system; most of it is in the memory carried within the organizing fields of an synecdoche essays organism. Over time, the development of a larger memory of species experience, leads to the process of morphic resonance, where at all levels in nature, the form of systems is influenced by the form of topic, previous systems. Synecdoche New York Essays? McTaggart identifies major scientists who contribute significantly to field thinking across a number of disciplines holistic, metaphysical, spiritual or paranormal -- such as Karl Pribram, David Bohm, Fritz-Albert Popp, Charles Tart, Robert Jahn, Dean Radin, Hal Puthoff, Irvin Laszlo and Mae Wan-Ho. Field thinking informs an understanding of healing practices of various kinds. Research into the connection between the biophotonic parameters and the parameters of electromagnetic fields active on living system such as that undertaken at the laboratory of the International Institute of Biophysics at essay about the environment Neuss, Germany[xvii]may provide some scientific validity to synecdoche essays those ideas of self-regulation of the short essay body to synecdoche new york which various spiritual practices and topic, somatic therapies subscribe. The network of meridians in acupuncture may be related to the body's biophotonic field, as may the prana of Yoga. But the very inconclusive nature of scientific research in these areas, opens them, perhaps inevitably, to consumer abuse on the web, just as western medical jargon has long been exploited for synecdoche new york the purposes of quackery, deception and commercial gain.
However, just as the healing rituals in older cultures involved performative, interactive and short about, imaging activity, it may be that art in synecdoche, contemporary society will come to acquire a more compelling value. In art, it is the research paper with field of interactivity that integrates the work, the artist and the viewer in what is both a material and an immaterial connectedness.[xviii] To discuss art in the syncretic culture it can be useful figuratively to locate any given work through the triangulation of synecdoche new york, three points, each weighted to a greater or lesser degree towards sacred art, conceptual art, or entertainment art. These polarities (and their many sub-categories) will of course be subtly nuanced, but they set out the three main strands that constitute what might be called the syncretic field of operations. There will be little difficulty in placing the larger categories of interactive/hyperlinked artworks (installed, performative or desk topped), or video games (arcade-based or globally-networked) in short the environment, this schema. As to the question of sacred art, leaving aside the synecdoche new york essays persistence of traditional religious practices from south America, Africa or South East Asia, contemporary examples will be found in thesis online, the disposition of objects, places and performance in Umbanda, Vodou, Santeria and syncretic cults of synecdoche, Japan. One that is more extensive than most, in that it involves an entire township, a total spiritual ecology, is located in the State of Brasilia, called Valle do Amanhecer (Valley of the Dawn). Trance Medium , Valle do Amadhecer, Brazil. Roy Ascott 1999. This is the about center of the religion of Tia Neiva that practices spiritism and mixes Egyptian, Inca, Maya and Christian rites.
The art involved with its symbolism, ritual, music, images and architecture is almost monumentally syncretic. (On a much smaller scale the Brazilian ceremonies of Umbanda or Candomble constitute an equally complex syncretism in their codes and protocols). In Orissa, India, a Hindu township of similarly spiritual complexity is found in Puri, the home of Lord Jagannath, its syncretic consciousness enshrining in a Vaishnavite identity traces of Saivism, Buddhist Tantricism, Shakti and Tribal Sawara worship. Within this syncretic taxonomy of the triad, there is also a hybridity of space to be accounted for: the in-between of psychic space, cyberspace, and ecospace, just as there is of embodiment: apparitional presence, telepresence, and new york, physical presence. Finn Essay? Our phenomenology of new york, space and time is undergoing a perhaps irreversible transformation. Research Paper With? We are asynchronically and literally all over he place often in many places at one and the same time. The distributed self is not only a well recognised feature of telematic networking, it also possibly marks an evolutionary development towards the synecdoche new york multiple self - a multiplicity not just of how to write codes, (virtual/cyborg) bodies but of attitudes, values, intentions and purposes. The double consciousness experienced in shamanic states (being both in essays, the physical world and new thesis, the psychic world at the same time) is no more than a precursor of the multiple mind states we may come to inhabit (or which will inhabit us) in the syncretic combination of mixed reality technology, sacred plants, and other technoetic processes that we can expect to emerge over the next decades. For some decades, sociological and psychoanalytical discourses have attempted to construct a theoretical context for new media art. New York Essays? Often immured in a morose materialism they have failed to see the spiritual horizon, myopically setting their eyes on the Other, limited to the gross level of reality, and about, maintaining a false dualism. Now, as a syncretic science of consciousness arises, and synecdoche, as artists increasingly navigate its altered states, it is the metaphor of the short about Double that exercises our minds.
In telematic space we are both here and out of body; mixed reality technology combines physical and synecdoche new york, virtual actions into a new kind of research paper, event space; the ingestion of entheogens allows us to move freely between worlds. New York? In respect of the double consciousness that shamanic states permit, it may no longer be seen as paradoxical that our scientifically- driven thought relates to models of consciousness and human identity based in the spiritual traditions of cultures previously dismissed as alien or marginal. Art may increasingly take on a more psychoactive complexion, and it will be found useful to link archaic models of write, consciousness, such as we find in new york, Amazonia for example, or amongst the Tsogho of Gabon, and paper, ideas of synecdoche essays, quantum coherence, such as we find in biophysics, and biophotonic research. These archaic models implicitly locate the human mind within a field of consciousness, rather than seeing consciousness as an epiphenomenon of the brain, as western materialist orthodoxies would argue[xix]. Altered states of consciousness can be accessed by means of ritualized forms of breathing, dancing, chanting, or by the ingestion of psycho-integrator plants[xx]. This understanding of consciousness as a field, and our ability to navigate it (and, as many aver, to be navigated in paper, it by other spiritual entities) is seen most vividly in the syncretic doctrine of afro-Brazilian Umbanda[xxi], which brings together Yoruba (originally from S. W. Nigeria and Benin), and the spiritist beliefs of Kardecism (originally from France), with the native wisdom and traditions of the forest.
Equally, from the Buddhist point of essays, view, the mind is not a biproduct of the brain, but a field that is a separate entity from the body, and which confers an inherent connectedness on the human condition. If we move our focus from entheogens to australia online engineering, that is to say from the immaterial to the profoundly material, we are confronted by an apparent paradox: the nano level of perception leads not simply deeper into matter but further into the quantum consciousness that lies beyond the molecular domain. As the nano scientist excavates matter, moving, re-assembling, and coordinating atoms and molecules in the nanofield, the synecdoche new york essays distinction between the organic and the technological is writing prompts, becoming less distinct. Similarly our molecular knowledge may lead us to a better understanding of changes in consciousness and perception afforded by pharmacology. What ever is the case, we are now increasingly focusing our attention on the very small, at new york essays a level far beyond miniaturization: a nanometer is one billionth of short essay about, a meter. This is at a level of perception that is, in any retinal sense and however technologically augmented, literally out of sight.
So much so that the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) calls for essays touch rather than vision to navigate the writing prompts sat essay nano field, and to manipulate individual atoms. I shall argue that the nanofield mediates between pure matter and pure consciousness and that its significance as an interface between two levels of reality can hardly be overestimated. There are a number of ways to view the nano phenomenon. Synecdoche New York? The popular view is that advanced by Arthur Drexler[xxii], who has provided a mechanistic and materialist understanding of its potential. His ideas of nano engineering and materials science promise self-replicating nanobots, self-renewing structures and research paper with citations, self-assembling environments, working within the body, within its environment, and in outer space. Some find that this view violates our understanding of the synecdoche new york essays body as constituting a holistic, mind/body field. When the body is seen as no more than a material collection of atoms, it may make sense to apply a materialistic strategy of repair. But the living organism is infinitely more complex than that which the cyborg model, however sophisticated, allows. Developments in biophysics support this view: atoms and molecules cannot be context-independent. There is another other way of understanding the significance of university thesis, our penetration of the nano world, which is to view these developments from the point of view of consciousness. This could lead to what could be called technoetic ontology[xxiii] since nano is the plane on which technology and synecdoche new york essays, consciousness can meet.
This presents a challenge to the artist that is as much metaphysical as material, and will doubtless require a syncretic solution. Materialist may see working in the nano field as the end game, but it is not necessary to embrace a radical transcendentalism to see that nano is located between the about material density of our everyday world and new york, the numinous spaces of subatomic immateriality. The STM cuts through the dense complexity of short about the environment, matter to focus on the individual atom at a level that is new york, touchable and untouchable, immediate and research with citations, remote, as Gimzewski and Vesna have shown[xxiv]. Their recent exhibition at LACMA[xxv] was worthy of note. Nano Exhibition , Victoria Vesna James Gimzewski, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Victoria Vesna 2004. Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mingnoneau have also tried to give artistic expression to these ideas in their work Nanoscape [xxvi]. Nano watching changes the ratio of the senses: to touch is to new york essays see. The auditory sense can also be involved. Grimzewski has discovered that to touch the atomic plane is to hear the voice of short essay the environment, molecules, whose sounds may signal distress as much as harmony[xxvii]. Essays? The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows him to hear the scream of a yeast cell as it is doused in alcohol.
The individual atom, rather than simply employed as a building block towards denser material construction, can be considered as a point of prompts, access to the complexity of immaterial, subatomic domains. But there is no simple dualism here, no choice to be made between the materialist and the spiritual point of view. The situation is to be viewed syncretically, as a matter of both both/and and either/or. It is through our eventual understanding of that subatomic domain that we may discover the source of consciousness. Synecdoche New York Essays? We should be prepared to discover that individual consciousness is no more than an oxymoron. While individual self-awareness is how to write codes, a prerequisite of living beings, consciousness is more likely to synecdoche essays be the attribute of a field than of the individual organism. A strong advocate for this point of view is Hans-Peter Durr, of the Max-Plank-Institut fr Physic, Munich [xxviii]. He argues that quantum physics reveals that matter is not composed of matter, but reality is merely potentiality. His research suggests that the world has a holistic structure, based on fundamental relations and not material objects, admitting more open, indeterministic developments. From this it follows that in this more flexible causal framework, inanimate and animate nature is research with citations, not to be considered as fundamentally different, but as different order structures of the same immaterial entity.
In a stable configuration, effectively all the uncertainties are statistically averaged out, thereby exhibiting the unique and deterministic behavior of ordinary inanimate matter. In the essays case of statistically unstable but dynamically stable configurations, the 'lively' features of the underlying quantum structure have a chance to surface to paper citations the macroscopic level and be connected with what we observe as the phenomenon of life. The phenomenon of life may owe much to what has been shown to be a biophotonic information network between molecules within the body, possibly extending to other living organisms in new york, the world (this suggest a parallel to the telematic flows of electrons and photons across the planet). Briefly to describe the basic proposition concerning biophotonic process, we can turn to Fritz-Albert Popp, director of the International Institute of Biophysics in Neuss, Germany: Biophoton emission is a general phenomenon of toni finn essay, living systems. Synecdoche? It concerns low luminescence from a few up to new thesis topic some hundred photons per second, per square centimeter surface area, at least within the spectral region from synecdoche new york essays, 200 to 800nm. The experimental results indicate that biophotons originate from a coherent (or/and squeezed) photon field within the living organism, its function being intra and intercellular regulation and communication[xxix]. Also illuminating are the following points Popp has made in conjunction with J. J.Chang:
Bioelectrical or bio electromagnetical phenomena have been known for a long time, but the coherent bio-electromagnetic fields, including biophoton fields are a new concept. They exist in living biological systems although we cannot see them. They are some kind of structure with specific patterns, but they are not real matter, only fields that regulate and essay the environment, bring the living system into a coherent state. In such a state within the coherent volume, there is synecdoche new york essays, no difference between particles and waves, therefore distance has no meaning. This state provides ideal conditions for the communication that is the basis for biological regulation[xxx]. It is with this kind of theory that we can see a correspondence to the Sufi's syncretic view of in-between-ness of the physical and immaterial world, which was mentioned earlier. The biophoton is palpably visible and quantifiable at essay about the macroscopic level, but at the same time has the quality of quantum immateriality. In quantum physics (from which discipline and its many interpretations, media artists have derived a wide range of new york, useful metaphors) the most syncretic, par excellence, is the Many World Interpretation (MWI).
The MWI of quantum mechanics was first proposed in 1957 by Hugh Everett III, who argued that, whenever sufficient possibilities exist, the world splits into writing prompts sat essay, many worlds, one world or universe for each possibility. In each world, everything is identical, up until the synecdoche new york essays point of each split, whereafter worlds develop independently, with no communication between them, so the people living in those worlds (and splitting along with them) may have no idea that this is going on. This endless branching and splitting of the world creates more and more diversity in what we can see as a kind of infinite syncretism, where anything is at morrison huck finn all times possible, separate but related. Time also is syncretic, since the present of one observer, lies in the pasts of new york essays, a vast number of short essay the environment, different futures. At the same time, quantum physics yields insights which not only highlight the synecdoche new york defining idea of interactive art- that it is the action of observing that creates meaning - but also provides a parallel to the inherent fuzziness of mind and content, the semantic potentiality of the paper citations truly open-ended, inconclusive, emergent quality of interactive art.
This gives rise to essays the notion of prompts sat essay, a fuzzy, open-ended syncretism, whose parts are coming into being, in unforeseeable, unclassifiable variety, transforming, diminishing, re-appearing, within a non-linear structural containment. Essays? The same description could apply equally to new thesis mind, to the field of consciousness. In the search for mind, especially in synecdoche essays, the context of the artist's use of technology to explore consciousness, which I call technoetics, the technologies of other cultures can provide an important example. As much as data is stored deep in the memory space of the computer, so knowledge is stored deep in the psychic space of the shamanic world. In the finn technology of the psycho-integrator plant, (the vegetal technology to new york essays which we have already briefly alluded), such varieties as salvia divinorum or the shamanic liana, ayahuasca (banisteriopsis caapi), called the of western australia thesis vine of the synecdoche soul, and used in countless communities in Brazil and Colombia, are known as teachers, imparting wisdom as spiritual avatars. The researches of ethnobotanists such as Richard Evans Schultes [xxxi], Eduardo Luna[xxxii] and Benny Shanon[xxxiii] document the power of these plants in toni morrison huck essay, their sacred setting to enable us to transform consciousness, to enter into other states of being, to communicate over great distances, to connect with other entities, and to receive knowledge and instruction from the plant domain.
In recent decades the use of vegetal technology to new york essays heighten spiritual experience has extended in write codes, towns and cities, in Brazil most extensively, but increasingly in other countries, largely through the practices of essays, Santo Daime[xxxiv] and Unio do Vegetal. Topic? The opening up of public awareness to the power of plants to heal the body and to transform the mind will doubtless infiltrate art theory, if not immediately the practice of art. Synecdoche Essays? As has been noted above, just as the artist's fascination with new technology has led to an electronic, interactive, telematic art, so it is possible to foresee a chemical or pharmacological ethos arising in short essay the environment, art. A syncretic condition will arise when the two apparently opposed technologies are used in tandem; not simply cross referenced in an academic or analytical way, but brought together in a concerted conjunction of actions. From this, new syncretic ontology may arise, just as our notions of outer space and inner space may coalesce into another order of cosmography. Within this emergent ontology, evolution can be considered as a purposive pathway towards increasingly greater access to new york essays the field of consciousness, where survival is measured on a spiritual level: the fittest being those most able to adapt their individual self- awareness to the larger whole.
This proposition could temper the often aggressive interpretation of 19th century ideology of Darwinism with a more purposeful model of co-operation and collaboration, from the molecular to the macroscopic level of life, in the way that Lynn Margulis has argued [xxxv], and as the research of Mae-Wan Ho supports: Many remarkable individuals and local communities are indeed changing their own lives and the world around them for the better. Of Western Thesis Online? They all do so by learning from nature and recognizing that it is the symbiotic, mutualistic relationships that sustain ecosystems and make all life prosper, including the human beings who are active, sensitive participants in the ecosystem as a whole[xxxvi]. In the evolutionary process, which the scientific community may yet come to see as more teleological than wholly random, both telematic and pharmacological technologies can serve the synecdoche new york essays transformation of the self and the connectivity of minds, enabling what ever purpose is topic, held in synecdoche, our genes, the increased facility of expression. Human expression, along with cognition and australia online, perception have been enhanced and new york, perhaps changed by technology, to the extent that what can be seen as a wholly new faculty has arisen in the human sensorium: that of cyberception. This faculty enables us to see deeper into matter, further into writing prompts, space, to synecdoche new york essays see the invisible, speak of the ineffable, to multi-task, and micro-measure. The question then arises: does the telematic field of toni finn essay, cyberception attempt to mirror or even augment our awareness of the field of consciousness?
Locative media and telematic communication put the mind out-of-body and globally distributed, altering the synecdoche new york phenomenology of space and paper citations, time. Technoetic research into states of immateriality and emergent materialization may redefine our ideas of identity and presence. Synecdoche? Just as the quantum coherence of short essay, biophotonic networks can be shown to define living systems, so planetary consciousness may be illuminated by the coherence of telematic interactivity. We have argued that only a syncretic process can hold together the synecdoche essays current ferment of ideas, images and models of reality that communities and cultures across the planet are generating. To recite the short about story of media art in its syncretic mode is not to advance its development, nor is it sufficient simply to outline the syncretic reality that is emerging.
Syncretic Art development chart. Roy Ascott 2005. A call to synecdoche develop strategies that will strengthen this emergence is signalled. We started with the announcement that the original etymology of writing sat essay, syncretism would be observed, wherein 'habit' would be viewed as the enemy. Firstly, then, it is necessary to synecdoche essays identify new knowledge fields, and to develop transdisciplinary discourse and of western australia thesis, practice to replace what has become clichd and intellectually ragged. In the case of uncritically pursued conventions of learning, research and creativity (the universal staple of universities and colleges), it will be necessary effect a reversal of the classical agenda by always insisting on prioritizing subject before object, process before system, behavior before form, intuition before reason, and mind before matter. A more extensive reversal is needed in terms of institutions as a whole, replacing them with syncretic, many stranded organisms of exploration, inquiry, learning and creativity. This will require a truly syncretic schedule of new york essays, artistic, computational, psychic, biophysical and nanotechnological projects in order to australia thesis bring about new material conditions for life and art, and liberate the synecdoche essays requisite variety of cognitive modes and spiritual states for the fulfilment of our human potential. ©Roy Ascott 2005.
[i] Ott, J. Prompts? Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaen Entheogens . (Kennewick, WA: Natural Products, 1994) 11. [ii] The term entheogen was first suggested in Wasson, R. et al. The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (Ethno-Mycological Studies, No. 4). (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978). New York Essays? Entheogen is derived from a term meaning realizing the divine within, employed by the ancient Greeks to describe states of poetic or prophetic inspiration that can be induced by sacred plant-drugs. [iii] Synthetic organisms were created by Ray based on a computer metaphor of organic life in which CPU time is the prompts energy resource and memory is the material'' resource. Memory is organized into informational patterns that exploit CPU time for self-replication.
Mutation generates new forms, and evolution proceeds by natural selection as different genotypes compete for synecdoche new york CPU time and memory space. [iv] Nineteen psychedelics have each been screened against over one hundred receptors, transporters and ion channels, providing the first comprehensive view of how these compounds interact with the human receptome. [. ] The project aims to understand the mechanisms underlying the writing sat essay qualitative diversity of actions of psychedelics, by locating each drug in an abstract receptor space, a coordinate system with one axis for synecdoche new york essays each receptor. Ray, T. The Chemical Architecture of the Human Mind: Probing Receptor Space with Psychedelics . http://consciousness.arizona.edu/conference/tucson2004 (accessed 16.8.05) [vii] Adonis. Sufism and Surrealism . Short Essay? Trans: J. Cumberbatch. Synecdoche Essays? (London: Saqi, 2005.) 114. [viii] Drr, H-P. 'Inanimate and Animate Matter: Orderings of Immaterial Connectedness The Physical Basis of Life'. In: H.-P. Drr et al (eds). What is Life? Scientific Approaches and Philosophical Positions . (New Jersey: World Scientific, 2002).
145. [xii] Nagel, T. (1974). 'What is it like to short about be a bat?', Philosophical Review , Vol.83, no.4, 1974, 435-50. [xiii] Chalmers, D. 'Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness', Journal of Consciousness Studies , vol. 2, no.3, 1995, 200-219. [xiv] Davidson, D. Essays on Actions and essays, Events (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). [xv] McTaggart, L. The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe . (New York: Quill, 2003). [xvi] Sheldrake, R. A New Science of Life . (London: Granada, 1983) [xviii] Ascott, R. 'Towards a Field Theory for Post-Modern Art'. Leonardo , vol.13, 1980, 51-52.
[xix] See: Dennett, D C. Consciousness Explained . (New York: Pantheon, 1992). Dennett could be described as the pope of epiphenomenalism. [xx] Winkelman, M. 'Psychointegrator Plants: Their Roles in Human Culture, Consciousness and Health', in Winkelman, M. and W. Andritsky (eds), Yearbook of write codes, Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy . (Berlin: Verlag fur Wissenschaft und Bildung, 1995), 9-53. [xxi] Brown, D. Umbanda: religion and politics in urban Brazil . (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986). [xxii] Drexler, K.E.
Engines of Creation . New York Essays? (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1986). [xxiii] The term 'technoetic' is coined by the author from how to write, 'technology' and the Greek 'noeitikos' (mind, consciousness), to mean consciousness accessed, augmented, distributed, transformed (depending on the user's world view) by technology. This may have an synecdoche new york ontological the effect on the sense of self and of the world . [xxiv] Gimzewski, J. and Vesna, V. Sat Essay? 'The Nanoneme Syndrome: blurring of fact and fiction in new york essays, the construction of a new science'. In: Technoetic Arts: a journal of speculative research . Vol.1 no.1. 2003, 7 24.
[xxvii] Nature Vol.423,2003, 106 - 107. [xxx] J.J.Chang and F.A.Popp. 'Biological Organization: A Possible Mechanism based on of western australia thesis the Coherence of Biophotons', in J.J.Chang, J.Fisch and F.A.Popp (eds.), Biophotons . (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1998). 217-227. [xxxi] Schultes , R.E. and synecdoche new york essays, Raffauf , R. Vine of the Soul: Medicine Men, Their Plants and Rituals in the Colombian Amazonia . Short The Environment? (Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic, 2004). [xxxii] Luna, L. and White, S. (eds.). Synecdoche New York Essays? Ayahuasca Reader: Encounters with the how to write Amazon's Sacred Vine . (Santa Fe, NM: Synergetic, 2000). [xxxiii] Shanon, B. Synecdoche New York? 'Ayahuasca visions: A comparative cognitive investigation', in C. Rtsch J. Baker (eds.), Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness . (Berlin: VWB Verlag, 1999.).
[xxxiv] Polari de Alverga, A. Forest of Visions: Ayahuasca, Amazonian Spirituality, and of western online, the Santo Daime Tradition . (Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 1999.) [xxxv] Margulis, L . Origin of Eukaryotic Cells . (Yale University Press, 1970.) Her proposal that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved symbiotically, although in no way a displacement of new york essays, Darwinism, nevertheless initially made the Darwinian faithful very uncomfortable.