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bpm resume After a decade of what has often been conflicting and contentious debate over the meaning of “BPM”, we at roe v wade papers, BPM.com have joined with other industry experts on the establishment of an essay and active citizenship official and roe v essay papers definitive definition of BPM: “Business Process Management (BPM) is a discipline involving any combination of modeling, automation, execution, control, measurement and optimization of business activity flows, in support of enterprise goals, spanning systems, employees, customers and partners within and beyond the enterprise boundaries.” The goal of thesis, this effort is to find the definition that closely represents the concept that most people (including both experts and otherwise) have for the term BPM. The goal was not offer judgment on roe v wade essay papers different BPM methods, technologies or products, many of which are discussed on essay on exams are necessary or not this site. This definition is by design short and concise, yet definitive and complete. Some broader considerations. BPM is a discipline; it is wade papers, a practice; it is something you do.
Business stems from the state of being busy, and it implies commercially viable and essay and accountability profitable work. A business exists to provide value to customers in wade papers exchange for something else of value. Process means a flow of on responsible and active citizenship, business activities and seeing those activities as connected toward the achievement of some business transaction. Flow is meant loosely here: the order may or may not be strictly defined. A person doing BPM must consider a process at papers, the scope of interrelated business activities which holistically cooperate to fulfill a business objective. This is the key difference from ap rhetorical essay, a functional view of essay, business where each function might be optimized independent of the other functions. In a complex system like a business, it is well known that local optimization of part of the system will rarely lead to thesis asset, good overall results. A BPM practitioner must consider the metrics of the entire system when evaluating a specific process.
Modeling means that they would identify, define, and make a representation of the complete process to support communication about the process. There is roe v essay, no single standard way to model, but the model must encompass the process. Automation refers to the work that is done in advance to ap rhetorical analysis, assure the smooth execution of the process instances. In many cases this means writing software, but it might include building machinery or even creating signage to roe v wade papers, direct participants. Execution meaning that instances of essay on exams are necessary or not, a process are performed or enacted, which may include automated aspects. Conceptually, the process instance executes itself, following the wade BPM practitioner’s model, but unfolding independent of the BPM practitioner. Essay? Control means that the roe v wade essay papers there is some aspect of making sure that the process follows the designed course.
This can be strict control and enforcement, or it might be loose control in essay the form of guidelines, training, and manual practices. Measurement means that effort is taken to quantitatively determine how well the process is working in terms of serving the needs of customers. Optimization means that the discipline of BPM is an ongoing activity that builds over time to steadily improve the measures of the process. Roe V Wade Essay Papers? Improvement is relative to the goals of the organization, and ultimately in terms of meeting the needs of ap rhetorical essay, customers. Enterprise is used here simply to mean a business organization; any organization where people are working together to meet common goals; it does not need to be exceptionally large, and it does not need to roe v papers, be for profit. The mention of enterprise goals is included here to emphasize that BPM should be done in the context of the goals of the management enterprise, and not some small part of it. This might seem a bit redundant in one sense: any improvement of roe v wade, a process must be an improvement in terms of the enterprise goals anything else would not be called an improvement.
Within and beyond the enterprise boundaries recognizes that the enterprise is part of a larger system. Customers are part of the business process. Their interaction, along with those of management, employees should be considered as part of the end-to-end interaction. Assumptions and Understanding Beyond the Definition Alone. The discussions and commentary that led to wade, the official definition of BPM also uncovered several assumptions and immutable notions about BPM. These are presented below. BPM is an activity; a practice - BPM is something you do, not a thing you own or buy. It is described in many definitions as a practice. There was wide agreement on this, well over 90% of the participants expressed this view. BPM is about improving processes - It presumes the idea that you view business as a set of processes, and BPM is the act of improving those processes. This is important: “skill” is different from ap rhetorical, “skill improvement”.
This can be confusing. For example in competitive situations the roe v wade essay two ideas are often intertwined - what is the act of playing tennis, if not also the act of trying to improve the way you play tennis? However, in other contexts it is easier to distinguish the activity of driving is different than taking a driving course to improve the way you drive. The implication is that BPM is not about automating business process (in the obama thesis ‘paving the cowpaths’ meaning) but about improving them. The same way that ‘reengineering’ a process is about not simply automating what is currently there. Some will say that automation by itself is an roe v papers improvement over a manual process. The BPM is the activity of discovering and designing the in the of a essay automated process, and is done when the roe v finished application is deployed to the organization. And Active? The running of the processes is not part of BPM. However, monitoring the process to find areas of improvement would still be an wade essay important part of BPM.
BPM is obama, done by people concerned primarily with improvement of the process - A business process will involve many people, but how many of them are concerned with improving it? Some will insist that improvement is everyone’s job. That is, the receptionist should be thinking about how to improve the operations if possible. Roe V Wade Papers? This interpretation is too broad to be useful. The cook who adds salt to the food making it taste better, motivating more employees to eat in the building, cutting down on obama waste of time driving to an outside restaurant, and improving the amount of information interaction between worker, and resulting in better performance is NOT business process management by any account. Everybody in a business is working to wade essay, do their best job, and ap rhetorical every good job helps the business, but all of this is not BPM. BPM must be narrowly defined as the activity done by people who actively and primarily look specifically at the business processes, and papers trying to improve them. Clearly those people must solicit input from as many others as possible, but those others are not doing BPM. Participating in a process is not doing BPM - A manager approving a purchase order is not doing BPM even though that approval is an activity in a process. A bank manager rejecting a loan application is not doing BPM even though this activity is obama thesis, a step in a business process. These people are doing jobs that are part of a process, but they are not doing BPM.
Implementation (coding) of the process application is roe v, not BPM - An application developer designing a form for data entry as a step in a process is not doing BPM at that moment. Once the on power and accountability “to-be” process has been adequately spelled out, the actual implementation of the application that supports it is no longer actively engaged in improving the roe v wade papers process. A small caution here: applications are often developed incrementally show to the customer, get feedback, improve, and on exams are necessary iterate and wade essay papers the process may be improved incrementally as well. Those incremental improvements should be included as the activity of BPM, but the activity of implementation of the application is not BPM. The criteria is clear: if you are actively and primarily engaged in improvement of the obama masters thesis process, then it is BPM, otherwise it is engineering. Making a suggestion for process improvement is wade, not BPM - This means that there is a distinction between many people who make suggestions, and those who then actually do the ap rhetorical essay BPM. When a process analyst is involved in wade papers BPM, it is expected that they will solicit lots of information about what is and obama is not working, as well as suggestions on how it might work. Those people who give the feedback are helping the BPM work, but not themselves doing BPM. Improving a single step of a process is not BPM - Some have the mistaken idea that any possible action that improves a process is essay, BPM no matter how small. A person doing BPM needs to have some kind of big-picture view of the process. It has been described as an “end-to-end view” of the process.
Optimizing one step in a process, without knowledge of the entire process, is exactly what Hammer and Champy were warning about: to understand the correct optimizations we need to essay and accountability, consider those optimizations within the context of a complete business process. A workman smoothing gravel on a road is improving all of the process that involved driving on that road, but it is not BPM because he does not have visibility of the roe v essay papers whole process. The engineer finding a way to double the bandwidth of a fiber optic cable is improving all the obama masters processes that require communications, but this is not BPM either. An office worker who finds that OpenOffice4 helps to papers, create documents faster than some other word processor is improving all the and accountability processes that involve writing documents; this is not BPM either. In order to have a discussion about BPM, we can consider only those activities by wade papers people who have a view to, and consider the effect on, the entire end to are necessary, end process. Roe V Essay? Here we get into a variety of different ways that people abuse the in the skin lion essay BPM term. BPM is not a product - There is a category called “BPMS” which is roe v papers, a BPM Suite or BPM System. Gartner has introduced a new product category called “intelligent BPMS.” What is included depends very much on the vendor. Analysts have attempted to list features and capabilities that are necessary, but those features change from year to year. Obama Masters? For example, in 2007 analysts commonly insisted that BPM Suites must have a BPEL execution capability, but today this is entirely ignored or forgotten. Most products designed to roe v wade papers, support BPM also include a lot of other capabilities beyond just those the BPM practitioner requires.
Particularly they generally include a lot of application development and data integration capability. Are Necessary Or Not? It is roe v wade essay, very convenient to offer all this in a single package, while other vendors bundle collections of offerings together to get the same benefit. By analogy “driving” is an activity, but an automobile offers many more things than just those needed to drive. BPM is not a market segment again, there might be a market segment around products that support BPM, or BPMS products, but BPM itself is a practice. Vendors may be labeled as a “BPMS Vendor” which simply means they have some products which can support the activity of BPM, among other things. An application does not do BPM the application might be the masters thesis result of BPM activity. Once finished, it either does the business process, or support people doing the business process. It may, as a byproduct, have metrics that help further improvement of the process. In this sense it supports BPM in the same way that receptionist may support BPM by coming up with good ideas, and that is not enough to say that the wade essay application, or the receptionist, is doing BPM. BPM as a Service is management careers, not application hosting We use the term business process as a service (BPaaS) to mean applications hosted outside the company that supports more than one function of a business process. Like the application above, it does the wade essay papers process, but it does not do BPM.
Entire organizational units don’t do BPM To say that a company is doing BPM is simply a way of essay on power, saying that there are some people in the company that are doing BPM. This kind of abstraction is normal. Wade? It should be obvious that when a company or division claims to be doing BPM, the majority of the on responsible people there are not actually doing BPM. BPM is not anything that improves business some argue that every activity is part of a process because a process is just a set of activities. Then, any action taken to improve any activity is BPM. Papers? I have argued against analysis, this interpretation because such a broad interpretation would make BPM meaningless: it would mean anything. There is broad acceptance that BPM is a practice of methodically improving a process that supports business, and that improvements in part of the process must be done only after the consideration of the entire end to end process. BPM is not all activities supported by a BPMS as I mentioned earlier, a BPMS supports many things (e.g. application development) which is not BPM. A BPMS that only supported the exact activity of BPM would not be as useful as one that bring a lot of capabilities together.
It is however a common mistake for people to say that because a BPMS supports something, it is roe v wade essay papers, then an on power aspect of BPM. While it is roe v wade papers, true that someone who does BPM needs to document a process, it is not true that anyone who documents a process is doing BPM. While it is true that many BPMS support designing a screen form, it is not true that design a screen form is essay on responsible and active citizenship, BPM. The activity of BPM is fairly well defined, but a BPMS support a much wider set of activities. Because you can do something with a BPMS does not mean you are doing BPM A BPMS is designed to support the activity of BPM.
However there are many things a BPMS can do that are not BPM. Home What Is BPM BPM Today Blogs and Articles Quotes of the Week Podcast In the Forum Headlines Login Resources Events and Webinars First Impressions Featured Whitepapers Webinar Archive Case Studies Partner Events Vendor Guide bpmNEXT 2017. 2017 Copyright Business Process Management, Inc.
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Abortion/ Roe V Wade term paper …
resume miami law It is the policy of the University of Miami that no person within the jurisdiction thereof shall, on the basis of race, religion, color, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, veteran status, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination or harassment (including all forms of sexual harassment and sexual violence) under any program or activity of the University, regardless of whether such program or activity occurs on-campus or off-campus. Employers who advertise positions through the Career Development Office or participate in CDO recruitment programs must read the non-discrimination policy and undertake to observe it. The Career Development Office , all of whom have law degrees and practical experience in different areas of roe v essay, law, and an excellent support staff dedicated to helping each student achieve his or her career goal. The CDO provides both written materials and online resources useful when conducting a job search in South Florida or for an out-of-town position. Use the CDO#x2019;s list of which contains links to a variety of online sites including , employer directories, job posting sites, practice-specific organizations, legal recruiter directories and more.#xA0;There is essay on power, also a listing of extensive published by the CDO and wade essay papers, information on doing a job search for those interested in the . Whether seeking a job upon graduation, looking for an internship or externship during the academic year, or simply wanting to develop a network of contacts, it is never too early to think about essay, how to build professional contacts. The Career Development Office encourages students to have professional business cards to enhance their networking experiences. . Please contact the CDO at#xA0;#xA0;with any questions about ordering business cards.
Networking with attorneys and conducting informational interviews are more ways to conduct research into the practice of law.#xA0;To get started on developing a network and for tips on how to conduct informational interviews, please read the#xA0;#xA0;and the Importance of Networking Handout. See and the page. See list of essay, across the U.S. where Miami Law participates. Job applications may require a number of different documents beyond one#x2019;s r#xE9;sum#xE9;. The following resources will help students prepare materials: : #xA0;This guide contains advice on how to prepare for and succeed in interviews.
: This guide describes what a candidate can expect during a callback interview. : Tips on the negotiation process including salary negotiations. See also the Negotiating with Small Firms handout prepared by on responsible citizenship, NALP available in the CDO. Salary information as reported by NALP is roe v wade essay papers, available at the CDO. The University of Miami School of Law , founded in 1926, is the of the , located in essay, , in the United States. The school graduated its first class of 13 students in 1929. According to University of Miami's 2015 ABA-required disclosures, 61.6% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. From 1948 to 2002, the roe v wade law school had an evening division for essay on exams are necessary part-time students. Starting in 1952, the school started offering an wade essay papers degree in taxation. In 1957, UM began to offer an LL.M. in Inter-American Law, and the Masters of Comparative Law (now an LL.M.) was first offered in 1959. In 1998, the school decided to reduce the size of its entering JD classes by 15 percent.
The University of Miami School of essay are necessary, Law also offers extensive Public Interest Programs and opportunities, including the Center for Ethics and wade, Public Service that offers in-house clinics and educational programs including the Children and Youth Law Clinic, Health and Elder Law Clinic, and Corporate Professional Responsibility Program. The HOPE Public Interest Resource Center at the University of Miami School of Law gives students the opportunity to get involved in over 25 different projects each year, reaching various underserved and at-risk populations locally, nationally, and abroad. The school also offers several official joint-degree programs (in, among other things, business, public health and marine affairs), including seven LL.M. programs for post-graduate-level law study. The Academic Achievement Program provide participating students additional tools to succeed in skin lion essay, law school. Roe V Essay! Other special programs at the law school include four Summer Abroad Programs, one each in England and Spain and two involving multiple European nations (Greece, Italy, and England) and (Greece, Italy, and Spain). The University of Miami School of Law is the host of the annual Heckerling Institute on Estate Planning, a conference for estate planning professionals. The law school also hosts an essay on responsible citizenship annual symposium for , , and law. For 2016, ranked the law school 60th. U.S.
News World Report also ranked the University of Miami School of Law within the top 20 schools that incur the highest average debt. The University of Miami School of Law is located on the main campus of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, just six miles southeast of , the roe v essay 7th largest metropolitan area in the nation. The School of Law is centered around a central courtyard called the Bricks. The Law Library has a collection of over 600,000 volumes in print and microform, and subscribes to a large and ever-expanding list of electronic resources. The University of Miami campus is served by the at the . Due to the size of the faculty, the University of Miami School of essay and accountability, Law is able to provide an extensive curriculum selection for second- and third-year students. Roe V Wade Essay Papers! First-year students take a series of required courses covering the theory and on responsible and active, substance of the law while exploring the political, commercial, and essay papers, social dimensions of legal institutions. In addition to the required courses, first-year students also are permitted to of a lion essay choose one elective in their second semester. Law students at the University of roe v essay, Miami have the opportunity to combine their degrees with master's degrees in business administration, communications, music business, public health, or marine affairs. There is ap rhetorical analysis essay, also a joint J.D./LL.M. program where students can complete both degrees in seven semesters in the areas of wade essay papers, taxation, international law, international arbitration, ocean and coastal law, and real property development. The law school also offers programs leading to a LL.M. degree in thesis management, taxation, estate planning, real property, comparative law, inter-American law, international law, international arbitration, and roe v wade, ocean and coastal law.
The University of Miami School of Law has a total student body of approximately 1,250. For the class of 2018, 50% are female, 41% are minorities, 44% come from out-of-state, 61% speak more than one language, and analysis, 52% enroll directly after graduating from papers college. Obama Masters! Students range in age from 19 to 55. The 75th/25th percentiles for the LSAT are 160/154 and for undergraduate GPA are 3.6/3.15. The school offers students the opportunity to compete for membership on both the roe v wade essay Charles C. Papy, Jr. Moot Court Board and on power, the International Board. Both boards make up Miami's Moot Court Board which is currently ranked 14th in the nation.
The Charles C. Papy Moot Court Board hosts a Negotiation Competition, Mock Trial Competition, Fall and papers, Spring C. Clyde Atkins Advanced Moot Court Competitions, and the John T. Gaubatz Competition. Citizenship! Also, the board participates in numerous inter-school competitions across the country. Most recently, the Charles C. Papy Moot Court Board advanced to the finals of the ABA Law Student Division National Appellate Advocacy Competition, with one team member taking home the Best Oralist Award. The International Moot Court Board offers student's who are interested in pursuing careers in the opportunity to compete in wade, a range of both public and private law competitions held around the world. Asset Careers! The law school hosts a pre-moot for the each spring which attracts schools from Europe, Central and South America. Roe V Wade Essay! In 2011, the on power and accountability International Moot Court Board took home a 2nd-place finish at the in , winning two of the top three oralist awards. Roe V Essay! The strength of the law school's department has enabled the ap rhetorical analysis International Moot Court Board to achieve a string of roe v wade essay, successes in Arbitration competitions in ap rhetorical essay, the past few years. This past year, the International Moot Court Board was able to win 1st place in roe v wade essay papers, their first appearance in the competition held in , . Thesis! Moreover, the Board's team for the Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot, held in , , has consistently taken home Honorable Mentions for Best Oralist over the last four years and finished a personal best 14th out of 252 schools in 2010.
The University of Miami's School of Law offers participation in student activities. The Student Bar Association, (S.B.A.), serves as the law school's student government and works closely with the faculty and wade essay papers, administration to on exams are necessary or not improve student life on the campus. The S.B.A. also acts as a conduit to roe v wade papers the American Bar Association, and the school's S.B.A. President and the elected A.B.A. Representative serve as delegates to the national convention of S.B.A. Presidents and A.B.A. Representatives at the A.B.A. annual meeting.- The Law School also has a student-run Honor Council, which investigates and adjudicates alleged violations of the essay Honor Code of the School of Law. It is chaired by the Honor Council President. According to University of Miami's official 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 60.5% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners.
University of roe v wade papers, Miami's under-employment score is 21.4%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation. The total cost of attendance (indicating the cost of ap rhetorical, tuition, fees, and essay, living expenses) at University of Miami School of Law for the 2015#x2013;2016 academic year is ,815. The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for are necessary or not three years is 9,857. The University of roe v wade essay, Miami School of Law has a flagship student-edited and five other student-edited journals. Its flagship publication is the . On Exams Or Not! In addition, the school sponsors: In addition to these typical student-edited law reviews, the school also sponsors , a legal blog specializing in roe v wade, short reviews of recent legal scholarly publications. Alumni and asset management, job placement The University of Miami School of wade papers, Law has more than 20,000 alumni practicing law throughout the United States and nearly eighty countries around the world. The job-placement rate for essay on exams are necessary or not graduates of the University of Miami School of Law is roe v essay papers, greater than or equal to the average national job placement rate for the past six years. The reports that within nine months of graduation, slightly more than 70% of the 461 students in the Class of 2012 were employed in jobs requiring a JD.
42 of those positions were funded by the law school itself while another 34 students were reported unemployed. Most graduates (106 students) are employed in small law firms consisting of 2-10 attorneys followed by non-legal employment in business/industry (72 students). 26 out of the total 461 graduating students were placed in large law firms of 251+ lawyers. Notable faculty Current faculty , adjunct law professor, host of , law professor, expert , law professor, expert , adjunct faculty, Entertainment, Arts, Sports. COO of the . Former faculty Notable alumni (LL.M.), judge (LL.M. 1981), Prime Minister of (J.D. 1967), criminal defense attorney (LL.B. 1948), Justice from 1969-1987, Chief Justice from 1984-1986 (LL.B. 1953), United States District Court Judge (LL.B.
1931), United States Representative (1939-1947) (J.D. 1972), former Florida Secretary of State, former U.S. Ambassador to (J.D. 1991), artist (J.D. Ap Rhetorical Analysis Essay! 1959), U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Florida Chief Judge Emeritus (J.D. 1980), former Mayor of the City of Miami (LL.B.
1938), United States Representative (1955-1993) (J.D. 1991), United States Representative (2012#x2013;2015) (LL.M. 1974), United States District Court Judge (J.D. Essay! 1983), CEO and President of , founder, owner and essay, CEO of Buttonwood Development and roe v wade, Town Residential (J.D. 1977), United States District Court Judge (J.D. Obama Masters! 1975), former president of the (J.D. 1987), former member, , (J.D. Roe V Wade Essay Papers! 1987), United States Federal Appeals Judge (LL.B. 1955), Justice from 1987-1998, Chief Justice from essay are necessary or not 1986-1988 , President of the (2012#x2013;2013) (J.D. 1999), commentator, author, and consultant (J.D.
1973), novelist, author of legal thrillers (J.D. 1972), Chief Justice, (1998#x2013;Present) (J.D. Essay Papers! 1965), United States District Court Judge (J.D. 1992), 30th (J.D. 1982), President of essay on power, (J.D. 1978), Chief United States District Court Judge (LL.B. 1957), United States District Court Judge (J.D.), mystery writer. - former sports agent, founder of MMAagents Sports Agency, and the former CEO of India#x2019;s first MMA (J.D.
1998), United States Magistrate Judge (J.D. 1985), former Mayor of  (1987), Hispanic television arbitrator on (J.D. 1998), Chairman of the  (J.D. 1978), executive director of the D. Wade Papers! James Kennedy Center for Christian Statesmanship on (J.D. 2002), County Court Judge of Florida's 17th Judicial Circuit (J.D. 1991), United States Circuit Court Judge for the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals (J.D.
1998), United States Representative (2008#x2013;Present) (J.D. 1996), United States Senator (2010#x2013;Present) (J.D. 1956), United States District Court Judge (J.D.), United States Representative (2012#x2013;Present) (J.D. 1972), United States District Court Judge (J.D. 1978), Civil rights attorney (J.D. 1950), founder, , LLP (J.D. 1983), former assistant coach, former head coach of the essay on power and accountability of the roe v wade , and essay and accountability, current of the (J.D. Essay Papers! 1994), former operative (J.D. 1982), United States District Court Judge References . University of Miami. September 30, 2009.
Retrieved 2010-02-06.#xA0; . Florida Board of Bar Examiners. April 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-09.#xA0; . Miami News. Obama Masters! June 2, 1929. p.#xA0;8. Retrieved 2010-02-07.#xA0; ^ (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-06.#xA0; ^ . Retrieved 2009-12-03.#xA0; . Law.miami.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-24.#xA0; . Archived from on October 14, 2007.
Retrieved September 29, 2007.#xA0; . grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2015-06-09.#xA0; . Retrieved 2009-12-03.#xA0; . Archived from on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.#xA0; . Archived from on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.#xA0; . Archived from on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.#xA0; . Archived from on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.#xA0; . Archived from on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.#xA0; .#xA0; .#xA0; ^ . Employmentsummary.abaquestionnaire.org. Retrieved 2016-04-24.#xA0; . www.law.miami.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-13.#xA0; . Wade! Belize National ICT Center.
Retrieved 18 March 2014.#xA0; . 6.miami.edu. Thesis Management Careers! Retrieved 18 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . Wade! United States Congress Biographical Directory of the. In The Lion Essay! Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . .state.gov. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . florida-arts.org. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . miami.edu.
Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . citymayors.com. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . United States Congress Biographical Directory of the. Roe V Papers! Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . United States Congress Biographical Directory of the. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 20 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . . Essay On Power! Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; External link in |publisher= () . myfloridahouse.gov. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . floridasupremecourt.org. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . University of Miami,.
Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . floridasupremecourt.org. Papers! Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . U.S. Coast Guard. On Power! Retrieved 29 August 2015.#xA0; . Forbes. Retrieved 7 April 2015.#xA0; . Roe V! Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . Ap Rhetorical Analysis! Federal Judicial Center. Essay Papers! Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . Retrieved 2014.#xA0; Check date values in: |access-date= () . Essay! U.S. Department of Justice.
Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . The Florida Bar. Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; . Wade Papers! D. James Kennedy Center for Christian Statesmanship. Masters! Retrieved 27 February 2014.#xA0; . United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. Retrieved 6 October 2014.#xA0; . United States Congress Biographical Directory of the. Retrieved 24 March 2014.#xA0; . United States Congress Biographical Directory of the. Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; . myfloridahouse.gov. Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; . Federal Judicial Center.
Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; . Wade Papers! Retrieved May 8, 2014.#xA0; . Retrieved 2 November 2014.#xA0; Campbell, Rick (2013-09-08). . Essay And Active! . Retrieved 2013-09-08.#xA0; . Roe V Essay! Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 25 March 2014.#xA0; External links The University of analysis, Miami School of Law, founded in 1926, is the roe v wade law school of the University of Miami, located in Coral Gables, Florida, in the United States. The University of on exams are necessary, Miami School of Law has a notable faculty, recognized for the volume of its publishing and the frequency with which the law school faculty's work is cited by others. The faculty includes professors with a wide range of legal interests and expertise, most of whom are leaders in their scholarly fields and play important roles in the legal community. University of Miami School of roe v essay papers, Law RESUME GUIDE Career Development Office 1311 Miller Drive Room A112 Coral Gables, FL 33146 Tel: 305-284-2668 Fax: 305-284-6213 E-mail: [emailprotected] Website: www.law.miami.edu/cdo.
Each year the University of on exams, Chicago Law School awards six Harry A. Bigelow Teaching Fellowships. The Fellowships offer recent law school graduates an opportunity to roe v essay papers prepare for lion an academic career. Roe V Papers! Fellows can pursue scholarly interests, attend workshops, interact with the faculty, and audit courses or seminars. The Bigelow program has been very successful in placing its Fellows in tenure-track academic positions in skin lion, law schools. The Fellows' primary responsibility is to essay design and carry out a program of on responsible citizenship, tutorial instruction for first-year students. The Bigelow Program provides instruction in legal research, writing, and analysis. The faculty considers the program to be a major element in the first-year curriculum and an indispensable aid in developing students' critical and papers, analytical skills. Although the Fellows construct much of their curriculum, members of the faculty supervise the Program as a whole.
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Film Noir: A Study in roe v essay Narrative Openings, Part 1. Film noir is one of those filmic terms which critics lovingly use, but if forced to could not give a unified meaning. Like other borrowed terms (mise en scene, genre, realism), when applied to essay and active film the definition becomes hazy. Film noir has been referred to as a genre, a cycle, a movement, a mood, and a style. In a more recent study James Naremore refers to roe v wade essay film noir as belonging to a history of ap rhetorical essay “ideas” tied to “commercial strategies and aesthetic ideologies,” an idea we have “projected into the past” (as a retro genre term, like horror, which is usually referred to roe v wade essay papers critically prior to obama masters thesis its use by the industry as a term, i.e. pre-1930). Those referring to it as a genre are inclusive, stretching the definition to include contemporary films ( Chinatown , Roman Polanski, 1974, Night Moves , Arthur Penn, 1975, Body Heat , Lawrence Kasdan, 1981, Dead Again , Kenneth Branagh, 1991), The Last Seduction , John Dahl, 1994, The Usual Suspects , Bryan Singer, 1995, Bound , Andy, Larry Wachowski, 1996, L.A. Confidential , Curt Hanson, 1997, and The Black Dahlia , Brian De Palma, 2006); those referring to it as a cycle or movement are exclusive, restricting the roe v wade papers, films to a specific period (usually somewhere between the years 1940 and 1960). Within this group there is a further distinction, with some critics being more inclusive than others. Essay On Exams. When defined as a mood the films are selected cross generically ( The Lost Weekend , Billy Wilder, 1945/The Problem Picture, Leave Her to Heaven , John Stahl, 1945/Melodrama, Val Lewton’s nine RKO films from 1942 to essay 1946/Horror, Pursued , Raoul Walsh, 1947/Western, Beat the Devil , John Huston, 1954/Comedy, Bladerunner , Ridley Scott, 1982/Science Fiction, Sin City , Tarantino/Rodriguez 2005/Science-Fiction/Animation.
If one were to masters make a list of roe v wade every film referred to as film noir by one critic or another the total would certainly exceed 300. My predilection is to define film noir as a specific period, a movement, between the years 1940 and in the of a lion 1958, which gives weighted balance to social/cultural issues and industry factors (post-World War 2 malaise/uncertainty, changes in essay the family structure, Cold War paranioa, exodus of German/Austrian talent to the US during the rise of Nazism, etc.). There is little reason to go over this area since it has been treaded over to death. It is important, however, in my structural account of film noir openings, to discuss it in analysis an historical context. I have decided to narrow my area of study to wade the years 1940 to 1950 –which could be considered as the classic period (or moment) of film noir. My reason here is that this period is more representative of the classic film noir because it remains closer to its original sources and impetus and had not yet attained the obama masters, status of retro/neo-noir. (See Paul Schrader’s seminal article on the film noir for a list of the motivational factors and phases.) Discussing the roe v wade, films in context implies a consideration of film noir’s relationship to classical Hollywood cinema. Skin Of A Essay. In analyzing the films closely various common schemata became apparent. Papers. Contextualizing them only seemed natural.
My decision to study film noir openings was not approached a priori but discovered itself when a concerted viewing of over forty film noir revealed a pattern of forceful and emphatic openings. Therefore the aim of the essay is not only to contextualize film noir but to add insight into its aesthetic by approaching film noir in a new and (hopefully) illuminating way. I will elaborate on thesis careers, my definition of “opening” a little later. To define film noir as classical or anti-classical is a risky endeavor. Wade Essay Papers. A case in point is David Bordwell’s writings on the subject. According to his unbiased sampling of 100 classical films only 20% of classical cinema employs the flashback, and usually for brief exposition ( The Classical Hollywood Cinema , p.42). On Responsible And Active. How does film noir fit in to this model? Realizing Bordwell’s shifting paradigm which allows for large variances of “bound alternatives,” both linear and roe v wade essay papers non-linear narrative structures are to be considered as part of the classical style. In The Skin Of A Lion. 
This is understandable, since both linear and non linear narrative structure have appeared in classical cinema, but it is roe v wade papers, also apparent that the flashback structure is used more often, and elaborately, in the film noir. Hence it is a schemata more common to the film noir than, say, the comedy. Does this make film noir less classical? Bordwell discusses film noir under the section “Bounds of Difference” and lists four ways in which film noir is seen to challenge classical cinema ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.76). He then states his belief that these four elements are not really anti- classical but exist on the most extreme side of the bound alternatives. He concludes: “These films blend causal unity with a new realistic and obama masters generic motivation, and the result no more subverts the classical film than crime fiction undercuts the roe v essay papers, orthodox novel” (p.77). In his book Narration in the Fiction Film he is even clearer on this:
In sum, film noir is not outside the pale, as many of and accountability its admirers prefer to think. It is essay papers, a clearly codified option within classicism, a unified set of syuzhet tactics and stylistic features no more disruptive of classical principles than the conventions of genres like the musical or the melodrama (p.198). I agree with Bordwell in this respect. Although certain noir elements may strain classical form they remain codified. Therefore the motivation for the deviant schemata still falls under one of the four pertaining to classical cinema: compositional, realistic, intertextual, or artistic ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.19). The elements which diverge most from classical style fall under the most common type of masters intertextual motivation: generic. Essay. Hence a typical downbeat noir ending is no more anti-classical than the song and dance which interupts the narrative in a musical or the direct camera address in the 1930s ‘Anarchistic comedy’ (according to Henry Jenkins, a form of essay on power comedy derived from the ‘Vaudeville Aesthetic’). So why is it that film noir is seen by many as a challenge to classical style? The answer lies in an earlier comment: that most noir schemata exist on the most extreme side of the ‘bound alternative.’ Take for example film noir’s consistent and complex use of the wade papers, flashback, its (at times) baffling narrative structure, its intricate and essay symbol laden lighting patterns, compositions, and camera movements, its ambiguous morality, and wade papers its assault on clearly defined story/character motivation.
These elements remain within the bounds of on exams classicism because they are motivated realistically and generically, but they appear anti-classical because they counter the dominant style and hence force the essay papers, spectator to work harder by searching for less used or more complex schemata. Also, although these schemata were not invented by film noir they do find their highest concentration within it. To quote Bordwell: Of course, the classical style defines certain spectatorial activities as salient, and essay on power the historical dominance of that style has so accustomed us to the activities that audiences may find other schemata more burdensome ( Classical , p.8). Bordwell’s inclusive system may lead one to ask the question, if indeed classicism encompasses such broad stylistic variance then is it really saying anything as a classification? Defining classical cinema is not an wade, easy task. When dealing with such a vast body of work an exclusive method would result in too many omissions. The inclusive method, while saying less about individual films, remains the asset management, only system capable of roe v papers managing such a vast undertaking.
I have accepted Bordwell’s system, faults and all, because of masters thesis its implications. Bordwell feels strongly that classical cinema is not as illusionistic and formulaic as many would believe. Watching classical cinema involves the spectator in roe v essay papers an active process where deductions and inferences are made based on obama masters, incoming information. This is wade essay papers, a participation necessary to the completion of the artwork. Bordwell also believes, as I do, that despite film noir’s unified mood (in a general sense), it is not as homogeneous a body of work as many critics would lead you to believe. An example is the fine essay by J.A.
Place and analysis essay L.S. Essay Papers. Peterson, “Some Visual Motifs of the Film Noir which tends to homogenize the visual style of film noir (concentrating on citizenship, lighting and composition), while acknowledging that they are ‘diverse films’ that can not be grouped together through “pat political or sociological explanations” (p. Roe V Essay Papers. 325). Bordwell’s definition of classicism ranges far enough to include the baroque/mannerist strain of on exams or not any art form. Other genre critics, notably Jack Shadoian in Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/Crime Film and roe v wade essay Tom Schatz in Hollywood Genres have discussed the evolutional quality inherent in on exams are necessary film cycles and genres.
Each genre/cycle has various stages it undergoes, from the formative stage where conventions are realized, to the classical stage where they are honed and perfected, to a baroque stage where formal and papers stylistic experimentation occurs, to a final reflexive and parodic stage. In a sense, Bordwell’s inclusive definition of classical cinema (all Hollywood films made between the years 1917 to 1960) can be understood through Noel Carroll’s reworking of George Dickie’s Institutional Theory of Art. Carroll states that something qualifies as a work of art if it can be appreciated as a repetition, amplification, or repudiation of an earlier artwork (1979). With respect to Bordwell any film which repeats, amplifies, or repudiates classicism, while remaining within the said parameters, belongs within the classical style. In effect, this becomes the bound alternative. In discussing classical narration Bordwell says: “Typically, the opening and closing of the film are the most self conscious, omniscient, and communicative passages” ( Narration in Fiction Film , p.160). Keeping in mind film noir’s tenuous relationship with classicism I aim to thesis discuss the wade essay, noir opening and how it is an amplification of the typical classical opening. All openings in classical narration are important, but in film noir they seem to take on an added importance, thereby remaining within the classical paradigm but amplifying it. The importance may rest on several levels: dramatic (quickly pulling us into the diegesis), narrational (retarding/withholding information or setting the story in motion), stylistic (setting the tone for the balance of the film), and thematic (revealing the themes and essay on responsible currents underlying the film).
Marc Vernet describes the opening of wade essay film noirs as being marked by a disarming ‘quietude’ which seems paradoxical when compared to on exams the violence and brutality which follows. “Without doubt, this air of safety is more or less relative since one may identify the distinctive traits of the film noir in its very first images” (Vernet, p. 3). Of course not all film noirs come shooting out of the starting gate. Roe V Wade. As is the case with any cluster of films there will always be divertions, exceptions, and inclusions which are less representative. To quote Jack Shadoian: The gangster/crime genre is an involved system of family relationships. Specific films tend to violate, extend, adapt, and sometimes dismiss the conventions that in part color and motor them even as they are evoked and put into play. (p. x) Returning to the earlier discussion of Bordwell’s broad definition of classicism, if you replace the words “gangster/crime genre” with “classical Hollywood cinema” this quote serves the obama masters thesis, Bordwell/Carroll parallelism of repetition, amplification, and repudiation very well. Before beginning the wade, analysis a definition of what I mean by on exams are necessary, “opening” is in order. In trying to come up with a working definition I attempted to keep it as simple and sensible as possible by allowing the openings to describe themselves. Roe V Wade. I came up with the following: an opening is the first completed action, event, or important exposition rendered by the film.
For example, the train ambush in White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949), the murders in The Dark Mirror (Robert Siodmak, 1948), and essay on responsible and active The Spiral Staircase (Robert Siodmak, 1946), the hired killing in This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942), and the pardoning of Roy Earle in High Sierra (Raoul Walsh, 1941). Essay Papers. Although the variances are great in terms of length (from 45 seconds to 17 minutes) and manner of ap rhetorical essay assembly (one shot/several shots, one scene/several scenes) they are almost always clearly demarcated by fades, dissolves, or wipes and usually have a microcosmic Aristotlean structure (beginning, middle, and end and, yes Godard, in that order). In the majority of the films with a flashback structure the complete “prologue” leading to the flashback constitutes the opening. Roe V. At times this meant having a lengthy opening, but for the following reason I felt this was inevitable: since the prologues functioned as complete sequences it seemed natural to keep them intact. Subsequently (with the exception of Knock on Any Door , Nicholas Ray, 1949) I could not find a comfortable “out” point.
What would become of the remaining portion of the essay on responsible and active, prologue? The most difficult film to wade establish an opening for was Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz, 1945). The brief 35 second murder scene which opens the film may appear to be a cohesive scene, an opening, but the citizenship, manner in which it fuses to the next scene, in tone and roe v temporal order, suggests otherwise; and, once the subsequent scene begins it must be followed to its conclusion: the beginning of the flashback. It’s common knowledge that the beginning of a narrative must have a magnetic lure. In discussing the insulation and “public privacy” accorded to us by the darkened theatre house V.F. Perkins suggests that film is self consciously aware of the psychological distance between the film world and the real world “…by allowing the spectator time at the beginning and end of the movie to skin of a lion shed and roe v wade papers reassume his self consciousness” (Perkins, p.134). Indeed many films draw us into obama masters their world with slow, inviting camera movements, usually beginning from afar and then moving forward (sometimes in wade essay conjunction with dissolves), often literally bringing us into analysis the diegesis through the frame of a window or door: The Bride of Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935), Journey Into Fear (Norman Foster, 1943), The Big Clock (John Farrow, 1948), Conflict (Curtis Bernhardt, 1945), Nocturne (Edwin L. Marin, 1946), Body and Soul (Robert Rossen, 1947), Night of the Hunter (Charles Laughton, 1955), Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).
The dramatic pull of wade openings is in no better evidence than the film noir. Seeing film after film it became apparent that the emphatic opening is in the skin essay, a film noir convention. (And my study did not include The Killers (Robert Siodmak, 1946), and Touch of wade essay Evil (Orson Welles, 1958)! Based on my findings the and accountability, openings can be divided into four general types: Group A consists of films with a flashback structure. It is subdivided into two types: the framed flashback (Group A1), where we begin in roe v wade papers the present, go to management careers an extended flashback and then return to the conclusion in the present (the classic A B A structure), and roe v wade papers the interspersed flashback (Group A2), where the narrative oscillates between the present and the past. The majority of the framed flashbacks are of the obama thesis, A B A variety. The transitions from essay present to past and back are clearly demarcated by a dissolve, wipe, or fade, and from a story standpoint we never actually leave the initial location (a police station in D.O.A. , Rudolph Mate, 1949, The Dark Past , Rudolph Mate, 1948, and Murder, My Sweet , Edward Dmytryk, 1944, an armored truck in Criss Cross , Robert Siodmak, 1949, and a swimming pool in Sunset Boulevard , Billy Wilder, 1950) because the flashback has taken place inside a character’s mind. Although cued subjectively, by asset management, the lead protagonist, once the flashback begins the narration takes on an objective or omniscient point of view. As Bordwell says:
Character memory is simply a convenient immediate motivation for a shift in chronology; once the shift is accomplished, there are no constant cues to remind us that we are supposedly in someone’s mind. ( Classical , p.43) The variances within the second type, the roe v essay, interspersed, depend on the number of times the narration returns to the present. The slight variances from the A B A model will be mentioned in context. The films from Group B1 maintain a linear narrative in skin accordance with classical Hollywood style. All the wade papers, openings are revelatory in some way. At the least, they all introduce the lead protagonist in their milieu and/or dilemma. Many of them go further by revealing important emotional and psychological character traits and a few go a step further by interweaving them with the theme(s) of the film. In classical Hollywood style (if you want a message call Western Union) this is motivated by the need to start and move the story forward (narrationally). The films in Group B2 also have a linear structure but begin more emphatically with a highly expressive/stylistic opening which functions as a microcosmic prologue to the film’s style and/or theme(s) and currents. In these openings thematic and stylistic revelation dominate over character/story revelation. Since space prohibits a close reading of all the openings I have selected one or two representative films from each group which I will discuss in depth in Part 1 of the essay ( The Dark Past , Sorry, Wrong Number , This Gun For Hire , White Heat , The Set-Up , The Letter ), and will then continue with a greater sampling of films treated in on responsible and active less detail, in the second part of this essay ( Journey Into Fear , Murder, My Sweet , The Strange Love of essay papers Martha Ivers , Body and Soul , Criss Cross , Champion , D.O.A. , Sunset Boulevard , Laura , Double Indemnity , Mildred Pierce , Out of the Past , Knock On Any Door , High Sierra , The Maltese Falcon , The Glass Key , Cornered , Scarlet Street , Gilda , The Stranger , The Big Sleep , The Lady From Shanghai , Key Largo , Caught , The Spiral Staircase , Notorious , The Dark Mirror , and essay and active citizenship The Asphalt Jungle . The thrust of my analysis will be to describe the action and formal elements of the opening and wade papers interpret them in terms of stylistic and thematic intent.
Broken down, there are general questions I asked of all the openings: what can we infer from them and what is the driving motivation behind them? For the latter question I was guided by Bordwell’s system: 1) compositional: common sense elements which are required for a particular narrative to function, for example, “a story involving a theft requires a cause for the theft and an object to be stolen” (p. 19) 2) realistic: the plausability factor 3) intertextual: factors relating to the conventions operating within that type of art, with generic being the most common, and 4) artistic: when aspects of the art form call attention to itself through technical virtuosity, showmanship, or strategies that expose the ‘invisibility’ of classical style through reflexivity, parody, etc. (Classical, p.21-23). In support of and in addition to these motivational factors I employed a triad of broad semantic and syntactical parameters: narrational (when an element relates directly to the plot and its ordering), sensational (an element which is less concerned with plot than spectacle and exploitation), and ap rhetorical essay reverberational (elements which are laid out for the expressed purpose of roe v essay papers setting up (or foreshadowing) a mood, atmosphere, tone, or motif).  I am also indebted to the theoretical insights of E.H. Gombrich, Noel Carroll, and V.F. Perkins. Some of the in the lion, more specific questions asked include: Is the opening reflexive? Does it have a symbolic or structural link to wade essay papers the conclusion?
What is the relationship between directorial and generic style? From group A1 have selected Rudolph Mate’s The Dark Past (framed flashback) and Anatole Litvak’s Sorry, Wrong Number (interspersed flashbacks). Case Studies. Group A1: Framed Flashback. The Dark Past (Rudolph Mate, 1948)
Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from an overhead shot of the city, to thesis asset management careers tall buildings, to a crowd of people. Roe V Papers. The images are cued by L.J. Cobb’s (Dr. Andrew Collins) voice-over narration. The camera follows people boarding a bus. The V.O. comments on the routine daily activities we all must endure. Inside the bus the camera tracks left to and active citizenship right along the roe v, faces of the passengers while the V.O. interprets their thoughts. As the bus stops and passengers disembark the V.O. informs us “this is where I work.” Cut to in the skin lion an optical point of roe v wade view  tracking shot toward a building. Several police officers greet Dr. Collins/camera as they walk by. Two dissolves bring us into the police station.
The camera continues to dolly forward through a corridor, tilting up to capture the respective departmental signs above each door. We arrive at thesis asset management, his office, “Police Psychiatrist” just as he says “… experts at understanding people.” The camera tilts down from the sign, the door opens and the camera enters the roe v wade, room. Moments later the doctor enters the frame to pick up a sheet of paper from his desk, ending, for the moment, the subjective narration. As the doctor and thesis police officer speak Dr. Collins looks out the papers, window at a new group of prisoners being escorted into the precinct (seen as his POV ). His V.O. begins and bridges a cut to the viewing room. As each prisoner is identified he externalizes their thoughts in V.O. The fourth prisoner, an 18 year old, catches his interest. After he analyzes the young prisoner we shift back to objective narration and he attempts to convince the arresting officer that the young prisoner be sent to the psychiatric ward.
They return to the doctor’s office and the officer asks: “Doc, why should you care about a kid like Larrapoe?” To prove his point the doctor begins to relate the story of Al Walker (William Holden), an infamous criminal. The camera dollies in thesis management slightly to roe v wade essay the seated doctor and his voice bridges the dissolve to the flashback: “Wasn’t too long ago, not more than a couple of years ….” Interpretation and Insights : Bordwell distinguishes two types of spatial establishing paradigms: immediate and gradual ( Classical , p.63). The former begins within the locale, usually on a small detail, then pulls back to reveal the entire space. Obama Masters. The latter takes us into the space incrementally (the series of wade essay papers dissolves being the and active, classic example). The Dark Past establishes its location gradually. This opening is important stylistically and thematically. Stylistically the subjective POV shot which brings us into the police station and into his office primes us for the film’s most important and impressive scene, Al Walker’s surrealist/subjective recollection of the childhood incident which triggered his Oedipal Complex. This scene, however, is much more distanced stylistically from the roe v wade essay papers, film than the subjective POV shots in the opening. The subjective strategy in the opening is similar to essay on responsible the opening of Rouben Mamoulian’s Dr.
Jekyll Mr. Hyde (1932). The oscillating point of view in the opening primes us for the rest of the roe v wade essay papers, film. The point of view in the opening shifts from subjective to objective. This also occurs in and active the flashback, which is triggered subjectively (by Dr. Collins) but takes on an omniscient point of view and a subjective POV of another character (Al Walker). We can infer many of the film’s themes from the opening. Its documentary tone (partly on location photography, V.O. narration, deglamorization of the roe v essay, police, “This is where I work”) cues us for the social commentary.
One of the on exams are necessary or not, film’s most blatant statements is the need to recognize the individual within the roe v, mass. At two points in the opening the V.O. narration interprets the thoughts and feelings of various people. Ap Rhetorical. From this we can infer the subsequent importance that psychoanalysis will play in solving the story’s obstacle (Al Walker’s Oedipal block) and the significance placed on psychiatry as a means of correcting and preventing deviant social behavior. Wade Essay. Dr. Collins places the burden of such control squarely on the back of society. Masters. From this vantage the motivation for wade essay the opening is narrational, slightly artistic (didactic) and also reverberational, since many of the film’s themes are established in the opening.
Comparing the opening of The Dark Past with that of Mate’s other film noir, D.O.A. , becomes interesting because it exposes the link between form and content. Both films begin with a similar action: a man making his way through a police station. Thesis Management. In The Dark Past the camera POV is subjective. In D.O.A. Essay. it is not; instead the camera follows the man from behind his back. The reason for this strategy is to keep the man’s identity unknown, thereby emphasizing the theme of essay on responsible and active fate and roe v wade essay coincidental tragedy.
The character’s anonymity could likewise have been withheld with a subjective camera position, but that would have taken away from the randomness and universality of the protagonist/event. Therefore the camera style which opens D.O.A. indicates the film’s central theme: fate and chance happening. In The Dark Past we need a character to lead us. On Power And Accountability. Dr. Collins becomes our authority figure (as he says, “It takes an expert to catch another expert”), informing us and convincing us of the importance of society’s role in the prevention and reformation of crime and criminals. Group A2: Interspersed Flashbacks. Sorry, Wrong Number (Anatole Litvak, 1948) Length of Opening : 9’15” (After a 25 sec. intertitle prologue)
Description : The film begins with a dissolve from the prologue to a shot of the city at night. A subsequent dissolve brings us into a dark, deserted office. The camera dollies toward a door; the words “Henry J. Stevenson Vice President” become visible. Another dissolve brings us inside the essay papers, room. The camera continues to dolly forward toward the desk; on it rests a telephone, with its receiver off. There is a dissolve to another location. Leona Stevenson (Barabara Stanwyck) is lying in her bed, phone in hand, attempting to reach her husband, Henry J. Stevenson (Burt Lancaster). The camera pans to essay on responsible and active her night table as she reaches for a cigarette and lighter (a marriage photo and small clock are visible). Her behavior toward the operator is forceful, demanding, and impatient.
Before hanging up she accidently connects into another line. The camera dollies to a close up as she realizes that the roe v papers, two men are planning a murder. Before the victim’s address is given the connection is lost. Leona hangs up. Thesis Asset. Cut to a medium shot. She graps the phone again and calls the papers, operator, insisting that the operator trace the call.
She reaches for a tissue paper on her other night table; the on exams, camera pans with her but remains on wade essay, the table long enough to reveal a crowd of medicine bottles. Cut back to Leona. The camera now becomes assertive. (An omniscient camera movement unmotivated by character or any other classical motivation, i.e. reframe, follow a character, a moving vehicle, etc.) It dollies to on power and accountability her open window, across the roe v, length of skin of a lion essay her room (dissolve) down her staircase, and to a bell high up on the downstairs wall which she uses to summon her servants. Throughout this assertive camera movement we hear her offscreen voice complaining that she has been left alone for the night and that nobody cares for roe v essay her. We cut back to Leona. She receives a phone call from masters her father in Chicago. A painting of her father bridges a dissolve to him. The camera pans around the den while they talk. He tells her daughter that the roe v wade essay, house is like a morgue without her, meanwhile there is a party going on in the next room. After their talk we dissolve to a clock in Leona’s room and to another location. Interpretation and Insights : This powerful opening is extremely evocative of the film’s themes and primes us, with its visual style, for the harrowing conclusion.
The use of the mobile camera is its most striking feature. However, it is and accountability, not used for showmanship but to enhance the character’s mental and physical claustrophobia, her isolation, to complement the dialogue, and to expose subtle visual clues. Wade Papers. For example, one of the several clues overheard by Leona about the murder plan is that it is to take place at 11:15 PM because the 11:15 train that passes on the nearby bridge will camouflage any screams. After the disturbing phone call the camera leaves her bedside and tracks to the open window. It is ap rhetorical, dark, but visible in the distance is a lit bridge. The camera continues to dolly across her room and then down the staircase leading to roe v essay papers the bell on the wall. The movement not only establishes the space but emphasizes her isolation. It is obama masters thesis, simply mirroring her emotional state as she complains to roe v essay papers the operator about her loneliness. This camera movement around her room and down the stairs foreshadows the even more complex 1 minute 45 second crane shot in the final scene. The shot opens on essay on responsible and active, a clock. Essay. It pans to a close up of analysis Leona on her bed.
She is talking frantically on essay papers, the phone. The camera slowly cranes up and away from Leona, out of the second story window, down around a tree and to the ground, capturing the dark silhouetted figure searching and then entering through a side window. Asset. Litvak employs the Bazinian schemata of the moving camera to papers maintain the “integrity” of spatial unity. However, in asset this case its function is wade papers, not to ap rhetorical analysis essay suggest the “ambiguity” of reality but rather to stress its very reality –a killer stalking its helpless victim. Rather than crosscutting, the uninterrupted camera movement from Leona in her deathbed to the killer visualizes the exact distance between them, augmenting the essay, suspense by showing us both the spatial and temporal contiguity of killer/victim, life/death. Like the on power and accountability, later Rear Window , the opening of Sorry, Wrong Number visually reveals important character and roe v papers story elements. Within the first few moments we infer that she is married (the photo), bedridden and ill (the medicine bottles), alone and isolated (the slow tracking shots), and wholly dependent on the telephone. The moving camera captures her physical isolation in her immediate spatial environment; the telephone captures her emotional as well as physical isolation from the outside world. Or Not. The operator, her link to the world, the police officer, society’s symbol of protection, and her father, her own personal protector, all prove utterly useless in realizing her pleas for help. (Her father says that the conversation she overheard was probably a radio program, a reflexive allusion to Lucille Fletcher’s original radio play.) It is no coincidence that she is murdered while on the telephone with her husband. According to Noel Carroll, one of the reasons why movies hold such a powerful attraction for audiences is because of wade essay papers its “erotetic” (question/answer model) narrative (1985). Movies generate a variety of questions which are answered during the progress of the film.
This question/answer model engages the audience in essay and accountability an inductive process whereby they must absorb incoming information and infer what may happen. Carroll distinguishes between two of roe v wade many types: the micro question and the macro question. A micro question is one which is answered in analysis essay the same scene or in one of the immediately succeeding scenes. A macro question remains unanswered for the majority of the wade essay papers, film, often until the final scene. The most obvious example being Citizen Kane ‘s “Rosebud.”
The opening of Sorry, Wrong Number poses one of in the lion essay each. The micro question –where did Henry J Stevenson go after work?– is answered in the subsequent scene (the first flashback). The more important is the macro question: who is the victim of the planned murder? Although the conclusive answer only comes toward the end, we are certainly encouraged to infer a guess. The opening provides two noteworthy clues: the essay, visual emphasis on and accountability, Leona’s isolation and helplessness, and the pointed delineation of her overbearing, domineering nature, her illness, and roe v wade essay papers her wealth: plenty enough motivation for murder in the film noir world! This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942) Description : The film begins with a fade in to a dingy hotel room, an analysis, immediate establishing of the space.
A man, Raven (Alan Ladd), is lying on his bed. The camera is at wade papers, a slight low angle. In the foreground hangs a coat and just below an alarm clock on a night table. The alarm clock rings. Raven awakens, shuts the alarm and sits up on his bed. Diegetic piano music is heard. He looks at his watch, removes a letter from essay and active his coat pocket and checks an address (insert shot). Cut back to a low angle medium shot of Raven.
After securing that his gun is loaded he places it and the letter inside his briefcase and begins to leave. The sound of the window shutting draws his attention to roe v wade essay a kitten. He pours the kitten some milk then leaves to wash his hands. Essay On Responsible Citizenship. In the meantime a young maid enters. The kitten spills a can, prodding the maid to roe v essay papers frighten the kitten. Masters. Raven returns; angered, he slaps the maid and forces her out of the room. He pats the kitten then gets up to wade leave. Obama Masters Thesis. Two dissolves later he is roe v wade essay, entering an apartment building. A young girl seated on on responsible, the stair case greets him as he makes his way upstairs. Papers. He meets with a man, a blackmailer who is under the impression that Raven is there to give him money in exchange for an incriminating letter.
A woman is also present. Thesis Asset Careers. She leaves the room. After listening to the man ramble Raven removes the gun from his briefcase and shoots the man once. The woman enters the room. Raven remarks, “They said he’d be alone.” She runs back into the bedroom but Raven shoots her once through the door. Roe V. He checks to make sure she is essay, dead, confirms the letter, places it in roe v wade essay papers his briefcase and leaves. In the hallway the innocent girl says, “Mister, I dropped my ball.” Two shot counter shots lengthen the moment. Raven makes a movement to go into his briefcase for his gun, stops, and decides to thesis asset careers retrieve the ball. Essay. The scene fades out. Interpretation and Insights : Here is an example of film noir excelling within the classical paradigm. This opening has all the earmarks of the classical Hollywood sequence: clearly demarcated scenes (in the thesis asset management careers, hotel room, in the apartment, and in the hallway), transitions (fade in and fade out) and one completed action, culminating in a beginning, middle, and wade papers end.
There is nothing excessive or overtly symbolic, as every action has a narrational purpose. However, the opening remains richly evocative of noir character, environment, and asset careers visual and aural schemata. The noir visual look is wade essay papers, established as early as the first shot of the film. The low angle and cluttered frame immediately suggest the claustrophobic noir environment. Several of the essay, subsequent shots are again framed from a low angle, emphasizing the enclosing ceiling and walls. The room, replete with harsh shadows (they seem painted), murky walls and chipped plaster, characterizes the ‘seedy’ noir world.
The deathly still aura lingering within the room foreshadows the roe v wade essay papers, impending murder. Not even the repetitive piano music can cut through the aura of thesis asset management silence. The opening establishes not only Raven’s character but, since this was his first starring role, Alan Ladd’s screen persona. Raven, the roe v wade essay, hired killer, is awaken by an alarm clock: just another day at the office. His demeanor is quiet and gestures graceful and calculated. A loner, Raven has a stronger affinity for cats than humans. (As he says later, “they’re on their own, they don’t need anybody.”) He is the consumate professional, always turning in a “neat” performance. Obama Thesis. While the blackmailer rambles on roe v wade, Raven remains silent. Before revealing his gun he flashes the blackmailer a sardonic half smile, a hired killer’s confident, fond farewell. Raven’s professionalism and “neatness” is evident in his style: one bullet per victim.
He is thorough, making sure that the woman is stone cold dead and that the letter is authentic before leaving. On the way out he is interrupted by the young girl. Essay On Power. The shot counter shots establish that the girl has seen Raven’s face well. The completist, Raven contemplates killing her but decides against it. This conclusion plants a provocative rhetorical question in the audience’s mind: would he go that far? As Willard Cates (Laird Cregar) later finds out, Raven is a man you do not want to double cross. By the end of the opening Raven’s (and Ladd’s) screen persona is roe v, indelibly carved: the laconic “cold angel” with boyish good looks masking a tough, uncomprimising interior. White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949) Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from obama thesis macro to micro: an aerial pan of the city, to a “California Highway State Line” sign, to a long shot of a train. From the train there is a L-R swish pan capturing a car in transit. Roe V. Cut to the interior of the car.
Four men are seated in the car. James Cagney (Cody Jarrett) is in the front passenger side. The camera dollies in slightly to frame on Cody. He nudges the driver, motioning him to speed up. Three cuts ensue, from the car to the train and back to the car. The camera pans to follow the car screeching around a bend. Cut to a head on thesis, shot of the train as it chugs past the papers, camera left. The scene momentarily changes to the interior of the train to observe the other half of Cody’s gang at work.
The scene returns to the exterior. The men quickly exit the car and execute their respective duties. In the ensuing shots the train comes to a halt, the mail compartment is ap rhetorical essay, dynamited open and the heist a success except for a few casualties. Wade. Two train employees are ruthlessly shot down by ap rhetorical, Jarrett simply because they know his name. Wade Essay. After the second man is shot he falls onto a lever, which accidentally releases hot steam into the face of obama masters one of Cody’s men. Cody looks down at roe v essay, him writhing in pain and then yells out, “Come on, let’s get outta here.” He runs off screen right and the other men pick up the essay on responsible, injured man.
There is a dissolve to a radio newsman reporting the essay papers, hold up. Interpretation and Insights : The motivation for this opening is narrational (animates the ap rhetorical, narrative) and compositional (logical causal factors). In the first few shots director Raoul Walsh relies heavily on wade papers, audience’s mental set. Ap Rhetorical Analysis Essay. Any person who has seen at least one or two gangster films recognizes the connotative meaning of the fourth shot in the film. The car, the wade essay, dress code of the four men and the presence of James Cagney cue us into the crime milieu. This shot, in combination with the ap rhetorical essay, previous shot of the train, are all we need to infer that a hold up is in progress.
This fourth shot is the most important single shot in the opening. Not only does it cue us to the crime milieu, but it subtley hints at Cody’s psychosis. Cody is framed in medium shot. Roe V Wade. He looks at his watch. The camera dollies in slowly to a close up as he nudges the driver and motions for him to speed up. After this action is completed the camera remains on the close-up for an extra beat. Knowing director Walsh’s classical style, where each camera movement has a function, the nature of this shot has an emphatic purpose above any immediate narrational function. For example, the thesis asset management careers, lingering close up may inform us that this character is the leader of this gang, but, being James Cagney in 1949, the audience undoubtedly know this already.
There is an intense look on Cody’s face, and he even looks away once, suggesting unease and restlessness. This lingering close-up has no other function, therefore we can infer that it must signify something. I will submit that this is roe v wade essay, a subtle nuance but, is it too subtle for Hollywood? In the Carrollian sense this opening challenges us, at this early point, to lion essay infer Cody’s psychosis (or in wade essay the least his viciousness) from the close up and Cody’s behavior during the hold up. If interpreted in ap rhetorical analysis a certain way, the opening can be seen as a reflexive commentary. White Heat has as much in roe v common, if not more, with the on responsible and active, 1930’s gangster cycle as with the film noir. Cody Jarrett, like Roy Earle in High Sierra , is a throwback to the prohibition era: a man behind the wade essay papers, times; it is 1949 and essay and active the gangster collective has given away to roe v wade the individualistic noir anti-hero. The train hold up is reminiscent of the era of the western, when train hold ups were common. If this allusion is conscious, then it is a reflection of the anachronistic current running throughout White Heat . I will now move on to the in the of a lion, two examples from Group B2 (linear/powerfully emphatic), The Set Up and The Letter . Group B2: Linear/Powerfully Emphatic.
The Set-Up (Robert Wise, 1949) Description : (There is a title sequence of a boxing fight. All that is visible are the boxer’s legs. One of the fighters collapses to wade essay the canvas. Fade out.) Fade in.
The opening shot begins high above street level, parallel to a street clock in the right foreground; it reads 9:05. On the extreme right we see a hotel’s neon sign. On the thesis asset, street level in essay papers the background is another huge sign: “Paradise City” (the wrestling/boxing arena). The camera cranes forward past the on power and accountability, clock and toward street level. Another neon sign becomes visible: “Dreamland.” On the soundtrack we hear jazz music and a loud teenager selling the evening paper complete with fight card. Roe V Wade Essay. There is a cut to a man selling only in the skin of a lion essay fight cards. Wade Essay Papers. (From his drawl we can correctly infer that he is an ex-boxer.) The youngster walks in screen right, directly in front of the man and continues selling his paper. The camera dollies in to a two shot.
The man pleads: “Hey, I gotta make a buck too.” The brash youngster replies: “Ah, go take a walk.” Cut to the dejected man. Camera pans with him as he exits frame right and fixes on a group of people purchasing tickets. The central figures are a blind man and his male companion. Camera pans with them left as they enter the arena. Another man enters frame left and the camera follows him to and accountability another group of people. A quick reframe settles on a shot of two women. The following conversation takes place: First Woman (without hat): I don’t know why I let George talk me into wade papers coming. Second Woman: (very sarcastically) Why Harriett, I thought you liked the ap rhetorical, fights. First Woman: Like them, last time I kept my hands over my eyes the roe v wade essay papers, whole time.
The camera reframes right (the corner of the building) to another shot of two men standing at the fight poster discussing who to place bets on. Stoker Thompson’s (Robert Ryan) age is the butt of a joke. They exit frame left and skin of a lion the camera turns slightly and dollies in to the poster. The Stoker Thompson vs. Tiger Nelson fight line commands center frame.
An arm enters frame left and strikes a match over Thompson’s name. Camera reframes left to follow the match to the cigarette. Another two shot, of roe v essay a short, balding man and a taller, sweaty and unkept man. (The taller man is Tiny, Stoker’s manager and the other Red, his corner man.) They enter the on exams, “Ringside Cafe.” Tiny meets alone with another man and in a series of shot reverse shots we discover that he has thrown the night’s upcoming fight for the short money ($50.00). Tiny and Red leave the cafe. Tiny cheats Red on his cut by telling him that their share was only roe v essay papers $30.00.
We also find out that to save Stoker’s cut Tiny has not informed Stoker about the set up. Red remains unsettled at the idea of ap rhetorical Stoker being kept in the dark. The camera follows them to roe v essay papers a point then dollies in quickly to Stoker Thompson’s name on the fight poster. Essay On Responsible. (The camera then pans 90 degrees to a hotel across the street, signalling the subsequent scene with Stoker and his girlfriend in the hotel room.) Interpretation and roe v wade papers Insights : This impressive opening is motivated narrationally and reverberationally. It informs us of the major drama and poses a central macro question: will Stoker follow suit and ap rhetorical essay lose as usual or will he upset the roe v wade essay, balance with a victory? One of the thesis, interesting features of this opening is that it introduces several minor but key characters.
The punch drunk vendor for example, who we later find out is one of Stoker’s biggest fans, remains a constant reminder of where Stoker may be heading. More importantly perhaps are the essay, host of characters who will reappear during the obama masters thesis, fight scene as key spectators. Throughout the roe v papers, fight scene there are reaction cuts to the spectators. Director Robert Wise does not paint a pretty picture of the boxing fan (or human nature). Thesis Careers. Wise portrays the fan as a blood thirsty savage who vicariously indulges his/her deep, primordial urges (catharsis?). For example, the blind man, who has the fight recounted to roe v essay him blow by blow by his friend, remarks in a viscious tone: “Why don’t he work on that eye.’ The worse culprit is the hypocritical woman who in the opening laments going to the fights and then behaves like an animal during the fights. Whereas most of the noir openings introduce the lead character in the flesh, in The Set Up Stoker’s presence is in the essay, felt equally strong through other means: his name on the fight poster, the people who discuss him, and the punch drunk vendor. The expositional nature of the opening goes beyond plot advancement (narrational motivation) to the more complex reverberational motivation.
Most of the film’s themes are echoed within the wade papers, opening: corruption, lost dreams, father time, and essay or not the cruel and hypocritical side of human nature. The opening shot cranes past a large clock, establishing the roe v wade essay, “real time” structure while symbolizing the management careers, inevitable reality every aging boxer must face. Visible are the signs “Paradise City” and “Dreamland,” a not too subtle reference to the washed up boxer’s lost dreams. The punch drunk vendor trying to eke out a living selling fight cards is overshadowed by the aggressive youngster, exposing the capitalist version of Social Darwinism. Stoker’s manager Tiny has a highly dubious moral and ethical system.
Not only does he cheat Red, in all likelihood his only roe v wade essay friend, but his fighter. The boxing world once again stands in essay as a micrososm of roe v essay corruption in society. The first few shots establish the space of the film: hotel, fight arena, and cafe. Thesis. Outside of wade essay a few scenes with Stoker’s girlfriend Julie, the film is confined to this area. On Power And Accountability. Metaphorically, Stoker’s own life has also been confined to a similar “space”: dingy hotel rooms, arenas, and bars/cafes. A recurring camera movement during this opening, the quick pan and/or reframe, will play a key role in another of the film’s great scenes. After winning the fight Stoker is left by himself to answer to the irate gamblers. He tries to elude them but is eventually cornered in a dark alley. He struggles but is essay papers, pinned to the ground by several men. The leader, Little Boy, gives the signal to commence the savage beating and the camera quickly pans to a shadowed reflection of a jazz band on a nearby wall, the frenzied music standing in for the beating. (This exact same tactic is used in The Sweet Smell of Success (Alexander Mackendrick, 1957) and, with variation, by essay or not, Sam Fuller in Underworld USA , 1961.) An unusual feature of the film is its strict accordance to “real time.” The film is 72 minutes.
The credits last just under one minute. The clock in the opening shot reads 9:05. Wade. The final shot cranes back past the essay and accountability, same clock, now reading 10:16, perfectly accounting for the remaining 71 minutes of screen/story time. There is a fade out at the end of the credit sequence, a fade in to the film and a final fade out at roe v essay papers, the end. (Since the credit sequence is thesis asset, bridged by fades it is temporally distanced from the film and hence its action –a boxer being knocked out– serves as a metaphor for Stoker’s less than successful boxing career.) Outside of these three fades all other transitions in the film are straight cuts. At that period in the evolution of the language of film style the fade/dissolve/wipe were common transitional schemata depicting varying time lapses. The unadorned cut was used to roe v wade join shots which succeeded each other in continuous temporal order. This usually meant either shots within one established locale or scenes occurring simultaneously (crosscutting). Essay On Responsible. Being a former editor Robert Wise was as conscious of this as anyone.
Therefore, to emphasize the temporal structure of the film (screen time=story time) Wise begins and ends on a clock and uses the ‘straight’ cut exclusively. I can not be sure, but would be willing to bet that The Set-Up is the only Hollywood film of the 1940’s not to employ a fade, dissolve, or wipe (excluding the beginning and essay papers end). What intrigues me the most about this realistically motivated aesthetic choice is the rhetorical question of whether or not the audience at that time consciously made the connection between the exclusive use of the on exams, cut and the temporal structure of the film. It is obvious that this was a conscious choice on roe v essay papers, the part of the filmmaker’s, but how did the audience react? The use of the fade/dissolve/wipe was a part of the 1940 audience mental set, but how closely attuned to their own mental sets were they? They could perceive their presence but how about their absence? Were they conscious of the ap rhetorical essay, lack of a fade, dissolve, and wipe and accord that to the strategy of real time, or was it something they felt intuitively? My guess is essay, that the latter would be more likely, hence certain mental sets may be intuitively felt more than cognitively realized. In fact I would say that, on a cognitive level, the opening and closing shots of the clock trigger the temporal strategy of the film more than the exclusive use of the cut. (That is, to on responsible and active citizenship an average viewer.)
On one of roe v wade papers my viewings of The Set-Up I kept track of the cuts and on power and accountability counted 630. Allowing for a margin of error, this works out to an approximate average shot length of 6.8 seconds, faster than the average of that period (9) but well within Bordwell’s bound alternative. My brief research reveals the limitations of such studies. The 6.8 ASL might persuade someone who hasn’t seen the roe v, film to infer that The Set-Up does not employ much mise en scene (long takes, depth of field, mobile camera, intricate blocking) but rather that it derives more of its stylistic meaning from the editing. The cutting in essay on responsible The Set-Up is excellent, and roe v wade used for more than just moving the story along, but the ASL does not reveal that a great percentage of the cuts, (approx. 311) occur during the essay citizenship, fight scene, which takes up approximately 24 minutes (one third) of screen/story time.
Away from the fight scene –and fight scenes are always cut quickly– the ASL is much higher. Indeed there are several intricate and important long takes in The Set-Up . Therefore the wade essay, ASL is not always an accurate indication of shooting style for someone who has not seen the film in question. A better assessment of the film’s statistical measures would be a scene by scene average, which would then reveal precisely where and when the and active, average shot length varies. The Letter (William Wyler, 1940) Description : Although the opening lasts 15’45” I will only describe the most important section, the first 5’45”. The film begins with a night shot of the moon. The shot dissolve to a sign –“Rubber Co. Singapore, Plantation No. 1”– and then to a tree trunk.
The camera tilts down the trunk to a bucket collecting sap. The camera cranes up and away from the tree and left to right across the worker’s sleeping area. Essay. Workers are seen lying on hammocks, sleeping, resting, playing chess, etc. The camera cranes up to a second level and continues over the straw roof; (Dissolve) the camera is still tracking L-R. A cottage is visible in the background. A gunshot is heard. A man stumbles out on exams or not of the door onto the front porch; a woman is seen following behind him. Wade Essay. A second gunshot is heard and essay and accountability (cut) to roe v wade dogs awakening to the sound. Three shots of the workers ensue. The third gunshot is followed by a closer shot of the are necessary or not, incident. The man, in the foreground, falls down below the frame while the woman (Bette Davis as Leslie Crosby), dressed in black, follows him down the essay, stairs, emptying out the revolver.
She slowly brings her gun hand down and drops the gun. Essay On Power And Accountability. The camera dollies in to a close-up. Her face is still, emotionless. Cut to roe v essay papers the disturbed workers. The fourth shot is a close-up of a man looking out from behind bamboo bars. He glances upward and there is obama thesis, a cut to his POV : the moon moving behind a dark cloud. Roe V Wade Essay Papers. Cut back to the close-up. The frame is now considerably darker and essay on exams or not growing increasingly darker. Essay Papers. Cut to a medium shot of Leslie, also in high angle and in partial darkness. In The Lion Essay. Cut to a reverse shot above her left shoulder; Leslie looks down at the corpse lying at the bottom of the steps. During the course of the shot the light pattern and intensity alters according to the position of the roe v wade essay papers, moon and the clouds.
As the frame lightens Leslie’s harsh shadow becomes visible across the corpses’ back. She turns quickly and glances up to the sky. Cut to her POV of the moon coming out from behind the clouds, with a cut back to Leslie. She returns her attention to the corpse. Cut to a frontal shot. The back lighting casts her in a semi-silhouette. Cut back to the reverse shot; Leslie exits frame left (up the stairs). Cut to a servant running toward the cottage and stopping at the sight of the essay on exams, corpse. Leslie invites the servant into essay papers the cottage.
She orders the servant to send someone to inform her husband, working on a nearby plant, and the district officer about the incident. And Accountability. The servant remains in the living room. Leslie walks to her bedroom, opens the wade essay, Venetian doors and calmly shuts them behind her. The camera remains fixed on the Venetian doors long enough to obama thesis capture the nuance as Leslie turns the papers, lights on. This brings us up to the 3’45” mark of the opening. Management Careers. The next few shots are of roe v wade essay papers her husband and district officer being summoned and their arrival at on exams are necessary or not, the cottage. The husband, Robert Crosby (George Marshall) attempts to essay open the bedroom door but finds it still locked: “Leslie darling, its Robert.” Seconds later the essay on power and accountability, door slowly opens and wade essay Leslie cautiously exits the room. My reason for asset ending at this point will soon become apparent. Interpretation and Insights : This is one of the rare openings where reverberational motivation overpowers all else.
The murder, which triggers the roe v, story and sets the drama in gear, is secondary to masters the overlaying symbolism. The symbolism centers on the timeless theme of the doppelganger, a common motif in expressionism and film noir. It pervades the entire film and roe v wade essay papers is animated in a variety of interesting ways (to varying degrees of originality and subtlety). The moon, the image on obama masters, which the film opens and closes, is used as a symbol of both oncoming death and the imminent duality of wade papers human nature. Ap Rhetorical Analysis Essay. Its position in relation to the clouds establishes the light/dark, good/evil patterning which dominates the film in nearly every facet: actual shifts in lighting intensity, lighting patterns, chiaroscuro, clothing, characters, and roe v wade essay papers narrative structure. In one way or another these elements are established in the opening. The opening and closing scenes of the film mirror each other.
One begins and the other ends with a shot of the moon; also, the death of Mr. Hammond in essay the opening is visually linked to Leslie’s death in the final scene by roe v wade essay papers, the same moon/clouds lighting pattern. The shift in light intensity within a continuous shot occurs several times in the opening (close-up of the thesis asset management, worker behind the bamboo bars, the reverse shot of Leslie, the Venetian doors) and roe v essay is repeated throughout the asset, film. Symmetrical shadows are also used to reflect the splintering of the soul. The light/dark patterning is roe v, also reflected in the clothing. This will become most evident later in essay on power the film but is cued in the opening. During the murder Leslie is wearing a long, dark dress. The victim, Mr. Hammond, is wearing a dark top and papers white trousers. All the other characters surrounding Leslie wear either all white (or light) or predominantly light clothing (her servant, the workers, the obama thesis, district officer, her husband, and roe v wade essay the lawyer).
Allowing for obvious symbolism, what has been established thus far is that Leslie is all evil, Mr. On Responsible And Active Citizenship. Hammond “grey” and roe v essay papers the others all good. This may seem too facile, obvious, or coincidental, until a subsequent event resoundingly confirms the symbolism. Moments after the murder Leslie sends for her husband and district officer and waits inside her locked bedroom. We do not see her again for two minutes as the scene switches to masters thesis the exterior. In story time this intervening period is not long, perhaps fifteen or twenty minutes.
Her husband arrives and she exits the bedroom. Leslie is wade, now wearing a white blouse and a black skirt, the reversal of Mr. Hammond’s clothing pattern. I did not detect this subtle change until the fourth or fifth viewing. The probable reason is that the intervening two minutes obscures one’s memory for such detail. The color coded symbolism becomes obvious in the scenes between Leslie and Mrs. Hammond (Gale Sondergaard): Leslie dressed in white and on power and accountability Mrs. Hammond in black. Leslie’s shifting color pattern is an externalisation of her immediate mental state.
It is no coincidence that the final two shots of the film are of roe v wade papers a veil hanging over thesis asset a chair and of the moon. The fact that there is only one micro/macro question in this opening (Is Leslie a murderess?) is emblematic of roe v wade papers its motivational factor. A narrational or compositional motivation deposits salient questions. Analysis Essay. The more subtle reverberational motivation can also expose concrete questions, but when it dominates as strongly as in wade essay The Letter it establishes mood and citizenship foreshadowing elements, rather than obvious narrational/plot questions. It relies heavily on intuition, retroactive thinking, and, sometimes, repeated viewings. 1 For instance, in a Hollywood film you will never encounter a shooting style as radical as an roe v papers, Eisenstein (short shots) or Jansco (excessive long takes). The bound alternative Bordwell speaks of rests somewhere in between the extremes ( Classical , p.62). 2 This triad of semantic and syntactical parameters was developed in conversation with Ian Jarvie while a graduate student at York University.
3 A subjective camera shot is described by Edward Branigan as “a shot in and accountability which the camera assumes the position of roe v essay a subject in order to of a lion essay show us what the subject sees” (p.103). There are many nuances when dealing with a subjective POV , but for my purposes this is fine. Branigan calls this an optical POV . Throughout the paper I will use subjective and roe v papers optical interchangeably. For complete bibliographic references see end of Part 2. Donato Totaro has been the editor of the in the skin of a lion essay, online film journal Offscreen since its inception in 1997. Totaro received his PhD in roe v essay Film Television from the University of Warwick (UK), is a part-time professor in obama thesis Film Studies at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada) and a longstanding member of AQCC (Association quebecoise des critiques de cinema). A Left-Handed Form of Human Endeavour: Narrative Comparisons Contrasts Between the Noir Heist Films The Asphalt Jungle and The Killing.
Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 2. Singapore Sling : Postmodern Noir, Narrative, and Destructive Desire. History and Time as a Fork in the Square. “Notes” on Notes on the Cinematographer. Susan Sontag: Against Interpretation?
1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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essay on odessey two ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. €śThe Development of Penelope in Homer€™s Odyssey €ť. €śThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey €ť. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMER€™S ODYSSEY. The time of ancient Greece seems like its own story in another world, one nothing like our own. Powerful gods and goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and the mistreatment of roe v papers women rule the plot.
Except that women have been overlooked in our world for centuries. The insignificance of women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal. In the epic poem The Odyssey by Homer, Penelope develops into thesis her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Homer makes Penelope into her own person and not just an addition to her husband by his long absence and roe v essay papers, the troubles she must face on her own through difficult times. Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to masters survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in Greek times such as Agamemnon€™s wife, but similar to Circe and Athena. She is wade essay papers turned into a woman of power by Homer. Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in ap rhetorical the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of it, Penelope remains more faithful to her husband than he is to her. Wade Essay Papers? She never submits to thesis the whims of the suitors begging for her hand in marriage and only finds ways to make them leave her, while he enjoys the company of roe v essay Circe and ap rhetorical, Calypso.
In a time where women are not praised for essay, their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for twenty years wins her a place as the highest form of women. Agamemnon compares her to his wife and praises her as being the €śmistress of her own heart,/ Penelope!€ť (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife €śthe adulteress,/ waited to stab her lord and king€ť (XXIV.225-226). From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that €śthe very gods themselves will sing her story€ť (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the thesis management careers best quality a woman could have. Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of her life, without a man by her side to see her through. Agamemnon€™s wife finds herself another man to rely on while her own husband is gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of roe v women at the time. Penelope is able to stay loyal to her husband even after twenty years. The two wives of warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of ap rhetorical essay her husband to guide her to become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus. Penelope is faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day. She is left with a son, not even two, to roe v raise on her own, without the guidance of a father figure in his life.
Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an asset issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and king would, and the fate of roe v papers her kingdom rests with him. In addition, once Odysseus€™ mother dies and Laertes goes to live alone, Penelope is left alone to on responsible rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself. Wade? There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to be dead and ask for her hand in marriage every day. They will not leave Penelope in peace and €śevery suitor swore to lie beside her€ť (I.115) but €śSpurn them she dare not€ť (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of her home and family. She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the suitors and never allowing her hatred of them to gain the masters thesis upper hand. She must guard herself and her home from their anger and of their insistence of Odysseus€™ death. Roe V Wade? If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to in the of a stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives.
Circe disposes of any men who come to her island, and has made herself a woman to wade papers fear. Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in other€™s hearts. She has no wish to kill even the men that plague her, only and accountability wishes that they would be gone. She never allows them to papers gain the upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout. When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. On Power And Accountability? Penelope feels that it would be best to test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Her cunning saves her from a possibility of being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the wade essay papers man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not.
As close as Penelope and Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to essay have him torn from her again. She tests him by essay, having him €śtried to the breaking point€ť (XXIII.206) by on responsible, suggesting that the bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. Essay? She also uses her wily wits to stall the in the of a suitors from forcing her into roe v wade essay papers an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for Odysseus€™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the work. Obama Thesis? What the suitors are unaware of is wade essay papers that €śevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove it€ť (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and have to marry one of the suitors. In The Skin Of A Lion Essay? Her trick works for three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the stringing of Odysseus€™ bow and firing an wade arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads. In the use of her cunning, Penelope is able to obama put off the efforts of the suitors for over three years, an impressive feat with men so persistent. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for his cunning because it is roe v similar to her own.
Penelope€™s cunning is therefore also similar to Athena€™s. Skin? Both are female figures in a time of wade papers male rulings that use their shrewd skills to retain power. Penelope€™s ability to remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and takes advantage of. Penelope is skin seen at first as a wife of a hero, and nothing more. She is known by her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. As the poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits. Penelope develops into a person from roe v, a faceless being in a time where women are valued for their bodies. Essay And Accountability? In the time of ancient Greece, women were insignificant. Penelope€™s character proves that women can be important to essay papers a story and the development of skin of a essay a happy ending. The Odyssey is an roe v papers epic poem and a story full of captivating tales of heroism and bravery.
Without Penelope€™s strength, wisdom, and loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to essay come home to and the story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the wonders of roe v essay quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the stories would have seemed to tell only of death. The actions of a mere woman could change the whole story, a concept that in ancient Greece would be hard to grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of thesis asset careers Religion in The Odyssey.
Religion has always been significant throughout history. Many people€™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to god. For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about how their god would judge their actions. Homer€™s Odyssey tells the story of wade essay Odysseus€™s journey home, and how the gods affect this voyage. The Greek gods and thesis careers, the religion itself are very significant to the story. Whether it€™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to go to roe v wade papers war, the gods are ever-present and a critical aspect to the story. One way the on power and accountability gods play an important role is by roe v wade essay, acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. Management? He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for the interference of the gods. An example of this is roe v essay when Circe entraps Odysseus and his men with her irresistible offers of meat and bread, thus causing them to stay much longer then they intend to. While on Circe€™s island, Odysseus narrates, €śSo day by day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and wine, until a year grew fat€ť (X.516, 517).
Circe€™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to obama be delayed an entire year. She is wade papers one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over. Essay On Responsible And Active Citizenship? Another is Poseidon. Just as Odysseus is about to reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, €śStill I can give him a rough ride, and I will€ť (V.300). He €śgives him a ride€ť by creating huge waves that destroy Odysseus€™s raft, thus deterring him even further. These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in roe v wade essay that they act as obstacles for Odysseus to in the skin lion overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only a tiny portion of the problems the gods cause him. Essay Papers? These predicaments and challenges are what make the essay on power story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Without the gods, this cycle wouldn€™t be present. This is why the gods€™ role in roe v wade papers the Odyssey as obstacles is skin so important.
Interestingly enough, the gods are also significant in wade papers the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an important role in masters the story is by aiding Odysseus on roe v essay papers, his journey home. Athena is especially helpful in this way. When Odysseus is battling the suitors to regain control of his home, he is greatly outnumbered. Athena €śturns their shots, or all but two€ť (XXII.303). Of A Essay? This action saves Odysseus€™s life, and helps him regain control of his home and family. The fact that when in need of wade assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is critical to the story; it enables him to fight battles, both literal and figurative, that he couldn€™t win on his own. Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to help him significantly changes the story. At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is ap rhetorical analysis so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for the knowledge that Athena will be there for him. The help of the gods is wade also important just to counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus. If he was only being hurt and not aided by and active, the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner.
The gods€™ aid is significant because frankly needs it. He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to return home. The Greek religion, particularly the belief that the roe v wade essay gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the on power gods weren€™t on roe v wade, his side because the winds are blowing his ship the wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the gods will blow his ship towards Troy. Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to please the ap rhetorical gods so that his ship can sail. The author describes Agamemnon€™s decision: €śthis was terrible to all, but to her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearable€ť (Hamilton 261). Despite the pain it causes him, pleasing the gods comes first. Hamilton continues, €śNevertheless he yielded€ť (Hamilton 261).
The idea that his own daughter€™s life isn€™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at roe v wade essay through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and the idea of religion causes people to value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones. People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to do something so that the gods will give them what they want in return. The gods are significant in this way because their approval and satisfaction influences people€™s actions throughout the story. Their religion is thesis critical to their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on wade essay, a whim, cause people to essay are necessary or not battle at will, and start an all-out war. At the end of the story, a fight between the mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is roe v essay about to essay break out. Before it can really begin, Athena says, €ś€™Odysseus, master of land ways and sea ways,/command yourself. Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the wide world may be angry€™€ť (XXIV.607-609). Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives.
The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and other gods posses this power, fighting is not ceased more often. So many people die during war that whomever has the power to begin or end a war has the power to save or take away many, many lives. The gods play an important role in this way by choosing to participate in war, or by choosing, as Athena did, to stop the essay papers fighting from happening. It is analysis essay apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the exciting, epic story that it is.
Although the gods play a very different role in society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant. Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of life today, an idea that was prominent throughout the Odyssey.